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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic hydrocarbon-based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the connection. Use of the adapter which joined with a brass nipple, created an unacceptable dissimilar metal joint. The steel also provided a source for the generation of sparks. Loctite, a hydrocarbon sealant that is highly flammable and explosive in contact with pure oxygen, had been used to seal the threaded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... inspection, micro-FTIR in the ATR mode, and analysis using DSC. The spectrum representing the reference parts showed a relatively higher level of a hydrocarbon-based impact modifier, while the results obtained on the failed parts showed the presence of an acrylic-based modifier. Also, the reference clip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-type mineral-oil lubricant (containing molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene particles) or grease conforming to MIL-G-81322 (containing thickening agent and synthetic hydrocarbons) and had two-piece spot-welded retainers. On visual examination, the balls were observed to be embedded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A return bend (made from ASTM A213, grade T11, ferritic steel) from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured after two years in service. The unit operated at 2410 kPa, with a hydrocarbon feed stream (85% propylene) entering at 260 to 290 deg C and leaving at 425 to 480 deg C. The fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower provided a caustic solution (NaOH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface at the feature Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and 1% hydrocarbons at 40 deg C and 55 kPa during operation. Voids on the fracture surface and evidence of incomplete weld penetration were revealed by examination. Brittle fracture was indicated by the overall appearance through some fatigue beach marks were observed. Very narrow bands of high hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed traces of hydrocarbons and ether/alcohol materials in the stained area, suggesting that the stain was associated with a cellulose...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... resin. The grease present within the housing assembly, analyzed using micro-FTIR, was composed of a hydrocarbon-based oil, a phthalate-based oil, lithium stearate, and an amide-based additive. The conclusion was that the appliance housings failed through environmental stress cracking caused...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermoplastic polymers Table 6 Glass transition temperatures ( T g ) and melting temperatures ( T m ) of representative thermoplastic polymers Chemical name T g T m °C °F °C °F Hydrocarbon thermoplastics ( Fig. 13 ) Polyethylene    High-density polyethylene –90 or –20...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in Fig. 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 . Coolant 1 was found to contain hydrocarbon materials and a type of anti-foaming additive. The cutting fluid and Coolant 2 was found to contain hydrocarbon-based oils and some additives. The detergent was found to contain a glycol-based surfactant. Analysis of a dried-down...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 12 Analysis of Coolant 1 by FTIR produced absorption bands indicative of hydrocarbon materials and an anti-foaming additive. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 Analysis of the cutting fluid and Coolant 2 by FTIR produced absorption bands indicative of hydrocarbon-based oils and additives. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 16 Analysis of nontinted and tinted areas of a typical part by FTIR showed evidence of trace amounts of hydrocarbon materials in the tinted region. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 The DSC thermogram representing the reference clip material, exhibiting an endothermic transition characteristic of the melting of a nylon 6/6 resin. The results also showed a second melting transition attributed to a hydrocarbon-based impact modifier. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... The obtained spectrum was characteristic of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-based oil, with no signs of aromatic hydrocarbons or other chemicals known to produce stress cracking in PC resins. The housing material was also analyzed using DSC. The DSC thermogram showed a single transition at 141 °C (286 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Such a paste was apparently used to lubricate the iron ball-float rod so that it would screw into the ball more easily. Hydrocarbon oils are not recommended for use with plastics such as polyesters or polyethylenes, which are the materials used to make ball floats. These plastics are attacked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the fracture appearance ( Ref 2 ). Figure 6 shows the general appearance of the through-wall crack. The crack originated on the inside (hydrocarbon side) of the pipe (to the right of the arrow in Fig. 6 ). This area was actually the weld root-pass surface in the inside of the pipe. Figure 7 shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... hydrocarbons such as ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), and butane (C 4 H 12 ) to the point where they crack and recombine to form predominantly unsaturated ethylene (C 2 H 4 ). Dimethyl disulfide (CH 3 -S 2 -CH 3 ) and dilution steam are added to the feed in order to reduce coke formation on the internal...