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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... equipment that was in operation prior to the installation of the mercury-removal bed. Butt welds Chemical processing equipment Ethylene Hydrocarbons Mercury Repair welding 5083-O UNS A95083 Intergranular corrosion Liquid metal induced embrittlement References 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... inspection, micro-FTIR in the ATR mode, and analysis using DSC. The spectrum representing the reference parts showed a relatively higher level of a hydrocarbon-based impact modifier, while the results obtained on the failed parts showed the presence of an acrylic-based modifier. Also, the reference clip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... make the connection. Use of the adapter which joined with a brass nipple, created an unacceptable dissimilar metal joint. The steel also provided a source for the generation of sparks. Loctite, a hydrocarbon sealant that is highly flammable and explosive in contact with pure oxygen, had been used to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The failure occurred as cracking through the vessel wall, resulting in leakage of the fluid. The tank had been molded from a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. The material held within the vessel was an aromatic hydrocarbon-based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A return bend (made from ASTM A213, grade T11, ferritic steel) from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured after two years in service. The unit operated at 2410 kPa, with a hydrocarbon feed stream (85% propylene) entering at 260 to 290 deg C and leaving at 425 to 480 deg C. The fracture was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-type mineral-oil lubricant (containing molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene particles) or grease conforming to MIL-G-81322 (containing thickening agent and synthetic hydrocarbons) and had two-piece spot-welded retainers. On visual examination, the balls were observed to be embedded in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and 1% hydrocarbons at 40 deg C and 55 kPa during operation. Voids on the fracture surface and evidence of incomplete weld penetration were revealed by examination. Brittle fracture was indicated by the overall appearance through some fatigue beach marks were observed. Very narrow bands of high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... with the nonstained region. Some carbon and oxygen were detected in both areas, which may be suggestive of organic substances. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed traces of hydrocarbons and ether/alcohol materials in the stained area, suggesting that the stain was associated with a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... the PET resin. The grease present within the housing assembly, analyzed using micro-FTIR, was composed of a hydrocarbon-based oil, a phthalate-based oil, lithium stearate, and an amide-based additive. The conclusion was that the appliance housings failed through environmental stress cracking caused by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower provided a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L X46 line pipe steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... oxygen in addition to copper. The various processing fluids, in addition to representative nondiscolored and discolored areas of the components, were further analyzed via FTIR, and the results are shown in Fig. 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 . Coolant 1 was found to contain hydrocarbon materials and a type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... excellent match with a spectrum obtained on a reference part, without evidence of contamination. The oily residue found on the part, including the fracture surface, was also analyzed. The obtained spectrum was characteristic of an aliphatic hydrocarbon-based oil, with no signs of aromatic hydrocarbons or...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Zinc white paste usually has a 90% powdered oxide base with a 10% oil vehicle. Such a paste was apparently used to lubricate the iron ball-float rod so that it would screw into the ball more easily. Hydrocarbon oils are not recommended for use with plastics such as polyesters or polyethylenes, which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... an ethane-cracking furnace developed a leak during decoking of the furnace tubes. The purpose of the furnace is to heat saturate hydrocarbons such as ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), and butane (C 4 H 12 ) to the point where they crack and recombine to form predominantly unsaturated ethylene (C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that surrounded the expanding cracks ( Fig. 6 ) as a consequence of penetration of hydrocarbon vapor High sulfur and phosphorus content in the weld metal ( Table 1 ), which helps to form second phases and sites for cavity nucleation Relatively low values of the hardness and tensile strength...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... suspected that the origin of the sulfur was the hydrocarbon oil. When the anodized layer was stripped from the panels using a phosphoric-chromic acid solution, the evidence of sulfur disappeared. This same stripping procedure did not remove the black corrosion product. Energy-dispersive analysis of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... section of the connector with the large male end and some thin transparent film found on the threads of the connector were chemically analyzed. The connector was determined to be either 2014 or 2017 aluminum alloy, and the film was determined to be fluorinated hydrocarbon teflon-type tape. Hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... foot. In order to prevent the possibility of combustion of hydrocarbons the O 2 content of the gas was kept below 10% by volume; a typical composition is [in vol. %] Figure 2 shows the top half of the foot and gives a picture of the extent and distribution of the perforations. Figures 3 and 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... furnaces are commonly used in petrochemical plants to produce hydrogen via a high-temperature reaction between steam and hydrocarbon gases in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers...