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Hot forging

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... concentration of nonmetallic inclusions in the central portion of the raw bar stock rather than the usual problem of improper forging temperature. Strict control over the inclusion content in the raw material by changing the vendor eliminated the problem. Forming defect Hot forging Nonmetallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... included visual and macroscopic inspection, metallographic and chemical analysis, SEM imaging, optical profilometry, mechanical property testing, and EDX analysis. The die was made of chromium hot-work tool steel and the forgings were made of CuZn39Pb3 heated to an initial working temperature 700 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...) was determined. Indication of fatigue failure was revealed by visual examination of the fracture surfaces. Rough grooves from hot trimming of the flash were visible on the surface of the cheeks. The outer face of one cheek of the throw on the forging contained shallow surface folds. Slightly decarburized forged...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The lower receiver of the M16 rifle is an anodized forging of aluminum alloy 7075-T6. Degradation of the receivers was observed after three years of service in a hot, humid atmosphere. The affected areas were those in frequent contact with the user's hands...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., it was deduced that the flakes were probably oxides that occurred in the hot forging process. Fig. 4 SEM images of specimens A and B, showing fracture morphology of ( a–c ) splint A and ( d–f ) splint B Chemical Analysis Table 2 presents the chemical composition of splint A and B. The results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... pronounced grain boundary disruption was heated to a temperature of 850° C. and hot-forged by hammering, three stages of heating and hammering being employed. Three bend test specimens were prepared. The first was cut from the unforged portion of the head and this broke immediately an attempt was made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... investigation revealed that fused material from the blade had been thrown onto the cold blade surface during a grinding operation to remove the targeting bosses from the forgings, thereby causing local embrittlement. It was recommended that extreme care be taken during grinding operations to prevent the hot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., and cracking was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement. Measurement of hydrogen content in the raw material prior to fabrication was recommended. Careful control of acid pickling procedures for descaling of the hot-rolled bars was also deemed necessary. Inclusions Subsurface cracks 38KhA Hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Cartridge-pneumatic starter systems are used on military aircraft. In the cartridge mode used for alert starts, the starter turbine is driven by hot gases produced through the controlled burning of a solid propellant cartridge within a closed chamber (the breech chamber...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., the interior of the forging, beginning at a depth of 25 mm (1 in.) below the surface, exhibited a continuous network of massive carbide particles ( Fig. 1b ). Superficial working of the metal, probably insufficient hot working, produced a microstructure in which the carbide particles were not broken up...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Metalworking operations are also classified as either primary metalworking (where mill forms such as bar, plate, tube, sheet, and wire are worked from ingot or other cast forms) or secondary metalworking (where mill products are further formed into finished products by hot forging, cold forging, drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... . (a) Macroetching (10% aqueous nitric acid) of a disk cut through the ring forging revealed decarburization around the cracks. 0.75×. (b) Etching of a polished section with a hot alkaline chromate solution revealed oxygen enrichment indicative of a defect open during forging. 80× Fig. 37 Failure caused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... been hot upset to provide material for the hinge tabs. The metallurgical quality of the clamp, remote from the burned area, was satisfactory with respect to hardness, microstructure, and chemical composition for this grade steel. The thickness of the hinge tabs was within blueprint requirements...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.... The steel was continuously cast by one supplier, hot forged, then austenized, quenched and tempered by a second supplier. A third supplier machined the journals, induction hardened and tempered the journal surfaces, finish machined, and balanced the crankshaft. The end product was to have a core hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow and conform to the die impression. The finishing impression is generally the censer section of the die. It is used to produce the final shape before trimming. Closed-die forgings can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contained herein demonstrate that steelmakers and ingot-to-billet hot-work converters were not responsible for this problem. The analysis demonstrated that high temperature forging preheat was responsible. Steel Quality Product Check of Failed Crankshafts Crankshaft steels are made to AMS 6414 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... In order to determine whether it was possible that defects present in the blanks before the forging operation (i.e. developed during hot rolling of the bar stock) could be responsible for the cracking observed in the defective kingpins, some starting blanks containing saw cuts were forged at the forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Table 1 Fatigue strength of heat-treated wrought steel of various Brinell hardness ranges Hardness, HB Nominal tensile strength Nominal yield strength Fatigue strength at 10 6 cycles Type of surface Ground Machined Hot rolled Forged MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... where temperature control is poor, as in hot forging. The distribution of the grain-boundary phase is almost always particulate rather than continuous, although it may cover a large area of the grain-boundary region. The phase can usually be detected by careful metallography and can also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are crevices in the surface of the metal that have been closed, but not welded, by working the metal. Seams seldom penetrate to the core of bar stock. Seams may cause additional cracking in hot forging and quench cracking during heat treatment. Oxides in a seam can be the result of exposure to elevated...