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High-temperature alloys

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract A brazing-furnace muffle 34 cm (13 in.) wide, 26 cm (10 in.) high, and 198 cm (78 in.) long, was fabricated from nickel-base high-temperature alloy sheet and installed in a gas-fired furnace used for copper brazing of various assemblies. The operating temperature of the muffle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract Three radiant tubes, made of three different high-temperature alloys, were removed from a carburizing furnace after approximately eight months of service when they showed evidence of failure by collapsing (telescoping) in a region 30 cm (12 in.) from the tube bottoms in the vicinity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract When bulging occurred in mortar tubes made of British I steel during elevated-temperature test firing, a test program was formulated to evaluate the high-temperature properties (at 540 to 650 deg C, or 1000 to 1200 deg F) of the British I steel and of several alternative alloys...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 33 Sigma (σ) phase in cast heat-resistant alloy HH, type II. Intermetallic phases, such as σ, can greatly reduce the ductility of many high-temperature alloys in service at temperatures from 480 to 955 °C (900 to 1750 °F). More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 57 Sigma (σ) phase in cast heat-resistant alloy HH, type II. Intermetallic phases, such as σ, can greatly reduce the ductility of many high-temperature alloys in service at temperatures from 480 to 955 °C (900 to 1750 °F). More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 52 Example of preferential oxidation of the grain boundaries in a cast high-temperature alloy steel More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Casting alloys Coal gasification Co-29Cr-19Fe High-temperature corrosion and oxidation In some coal gasification processes [ 1 ], the reactor burner nozzle is a crucial component. Through it coal slurry and oxygen are injected into the reaction chamber where they react exothermically producing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... examination of a longitudinal specimen cut through the fracture-origin area revealed several oxide-filled cracks (characteristic thermal fatigue cracks) below the fracture surface ( Fig. 1a ). In high-temperature alloys, surface oxidation at elevated temperatures can deplete alloying elements (notably...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and HBr. The final gas composition was metered into the mullite tube using electronic flow controllers at a total flow rate of 500 cm 3 /min (30.5 in. 3 /min). The metal loss data after 300 h of exposure are shown in Table 3 . Metal loss tended to increase with temperature. The high-iron alloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...-base alloys. Because of the high magnification/resolution required, transmission electron microscopy, using carbon replica or thin foil techniques, is normally used for this purpose. An alternative method of analyzing any significant loss in strength due to the presence of abnormal temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...(MPa) 150 180 Discussion The corrosion that has occurred on this transfer line bears all the characteristics of high-temperature sulfidation. It is known that alloys can undergo rapid attack when exposed to environments containing mixtures of CO-CO 2 -H 2 -H 2 O and H 2 S. The rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and associated failures of alloys used in high-temperature applications. The complex effects of creep-fatigue interaction are also discussed, although more detail on this is described in the article “Thermomechanical Fatigue: Mechanisms and Practical Life Analysis” in this Volume. Life assessment is also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in petrochemical plants to produce hydrogen via a high-temperature reaction between steam and hydrocarbon gases in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers and pigtails that connect...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... environmental attack, are the combustor and turbine sections. The turbine hot gas path components are made of special alloys and are designed to withstand stress due to combustion gases at high temperature. The materials found in this section are superalloys and stainless steels. Nickelbased superalloys...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Introduction Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g., waterwall...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may not exhibit all three stages of plastic extension. For example, at high stresses or temperatures, the absence of primary creep is not uncommon, with secondary creep or, in extreme cases, tertiary creep following immediately upon loading. At the other extreme, notably in cast alloys, no tertiary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperature, time, atmosphere, or flux; conditions of the faying surfaces; postbraze cleaning; and service conditions. Brazeability Brazeability is a term that was coined for the relative ease at which a material may be brazed. Low-carbon steels, copper, and copper alloys (except the high-lead...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... occurrence in gas turbines, high-temperature exposure of carbon and low-alloy steels used for piping and pressure vessels to high-pressure hydrogen leads to a special form of degradation known as hydrogen attack. In contrast to hydrogen embrittlement, which degrades toughness at low temperatures and imposes...