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High-strength low-alloy pipe steel

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... effect. The cases examined show that knowledge is incomplete in regard to graphitization, and the prediction of its occurrence is not yet possible. pressure vessels piping creep deformation cracking high temperatures low alloy steel cracking perforations metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., investigators concluded the pipe was contaminated with copper at the mill were it was produced. line pipe cracks copper contamination high-strength low-alloy pipe steel copper entrapment SEM backscattered electron analysis bend ductility API 5L X65 PSL2 (high-strength low-alloy steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... analysis yield strength API 5L-X46 (high-strength low-alloy line pipe steel) A metallurgical analysis was performed on a section of a pipeline that leaked while transporting hydrocarbons. The portion of the pipeline containing the failure was composed of API 5L X46 line pipe steel, 21.91...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... temperatures ranging between 425 °C and 540 °C. In these conditions, the decomposition of cementite yields graphite, which reduces tensile strength. This effect is a faster strength reduction due to the globulization of carbides. Therefore, steels must include alloying elements with strong carbide-forming...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... exchangers contained inside a 3.7 m (12 ft) diam by 23 m (76 ft) high cold box were constructed of aluminum alloys. The connecting piping outside the cold box was constructed of type 304 stainless steel. The inlet piping to a brazed aluminum plate-fin exchanger within the cold box was constructed of 5083-O...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... concluded that the failure of the screw led to the crash by causing a fuel leak, a loss in fuel pressure, and a consequent loss in engine power. The fact that the screw was much harder than specified was then a major issue since high-strength steels are much more susceptible to HE and SCC than low-strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., these effects are of greater concern in higher-strength steels. Hydrogen-induced cracking in high-tensile-strength, hard-drawn steel wire used for prestressing concrete pipe has been observed on exposure to laboratory cultures of the hydrogen-producing anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum ( Ref 80...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... The use of more resistant materials requires the replacement of susceptible type 304 stainless steel with an alloy such as type 316NG (nuclear grade) stainless steel, which has reduced carbon to prevent sensitization and increased nitrogen to compensate for the loss in strength caused by the carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... year until the furnaces reached their 10 year service life and would be ready for revamping. For a future solution, following modern design concepts, it was recommended that the Incoloy 800Hor H1 pigtails be changed to a low-alloy steel, such as 2.25Cr-1Mo, protected by refractory lining and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-induced fracture involves the consideration of both material strength and damage tolerance, much as in static design. The chromium-molybdenum steels, stainless steels, and Cr-Mo-V steels, which are commonly used in high-temperature service, are considered to be creep-ductile materials with the ability to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fatigue striations all supported transit fatigue as the damage mechanism. spiral welded pipe fracture transit fatigue HSLA steel longitudinal crack magnetic particle testing cyclic hoop stress API 5L-X65 (high-strength low-alloy plate steel) A newly installed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... type of hydrogen damage. Carbon and low-alloy steels can fail by several types of hydrogen damage. Failure by hydrogen embrittlement is often encountered with high-strength steels, especially when the tensile strength is above 1034 MPa (150 ksi). Low-strength steels are considered resistant to hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in this material. Better material selection offers another solution. Quenched and tempered low-alloy, high strength steel (such as 4130 or 4140) could be used. Castings made of low-alloy steels such as 8620 or 8630 are also appropriate in the quenched and tempered condition. The marine drilling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... threshold incubation energy ( E d th ) because no plasticity can be activated ( Fig. 16 ). Fig. 16 Comparison between metals and ceramic coatings fretted against an alumina ball for similar lading conditions. HSS, high-strength steel. Adapted from Ref 42 The Archard and friction energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... micrograph showing an area similar to (b) at higher magnification. (a, b) Original magnification: 554×. (c) Original magnification: 1953×. Source: Ref 11 Spacecraft separation springs were cold coiled from 13 mm (0.5 in.) 9254 alloy steel high-strength rod ( Ref 12 ). The springs were electroplated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is removed from the surface of steel during high-temperature exposure, if the atmosphere is not controlled properly, leaving a layer with lower carbon content, which translates into lower strength. The load-bearing capability may be reduced ( Fig. 28 ). Fig. 28 8650 alloy steel with ferrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... list is not exhaustive): Aerospace: Aluminum alloys in structural aircraft components such as landing gear and wing components, stainless steel tubing used as part of the hydraulic or fuel systems, high-strength low-alloy steel for mechanical systems such as landing gear and gear box components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... encountered without appreciable cathodic corrosion ( Ref 8 ). Iron and steel are fairly active alloys and require protection against galvanic corrosion by the higher alloys. They are, however, more noble than aluminum and its alloys in chloride solutions. However, in low-chloride waters, a reversal of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... secondary or impact induced • Low temperatures • Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material • Check for proper strength, surface finish, assembly, and operation • Prior damage by mechanical or corrosion modes may have initiated cracking • Alignment, vibration, balance • High cycle low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... thinning low-alloy carbon steel spheroidization SEM backscattered electron analysis microstructural transformation T12 (chromium-molybdenum low-alloy carbon steel) Low-alloy CrMo carbon steels, such as T12, T22, and T23, are widely used as high-temperature economiser tubes (e.g...