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Heat treating furnaces

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract One of 14 vertical radiant tubes (RA 333 alloy) in a heat-treating furnace failed when a hole about 5 x 12.5 cm (2 x 5 in.) corroded completely through the tube wall. The tube measured 183 cm (72 in.) in length and 8.9 cm (3 in.) in OD and had a wall thickness of about 3 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Several glass wool insulation sections from a heat-treat furnace showed visible, but only cosmetic discoloration. EDS showed the presence of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in the nondiscolored region, and these elements are consistent with glass wool. Relatively high levels...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., and experienced excessive distortion because they were left in the furnace for extended and varying periods with the temperature “turned down a couple hundred degrees.” Carbides Decarburization Quenching and tempering Carbon steel Heat treating-related failures This case study actually involves...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
.... Recommendations included replacing the material with an alloy, such as RA 333, with a higher chromium content and with an additional element, like silicon, resistant to carburization-oxidation. Carburizing Heat treating furnaces Tubes Hastelloy X UNS N06002 RA 333 UNS N06333 High-temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract One percent Cr-Mo low alloy constructional steel is widely used for high tensile applications, e.g., for manufacture of high tensile fasteners, heat treated shafts and axles, for automobile applications such as track pins for high duty tracked vehicles etc. The steel is fairly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... confirmed this mode of cracking. It was recommended that weld seams be furnace heat treated at a temperature of 600 to 640 deg C (1110 to 1180 deg F) for a minimum of 1 h per inch of section thickness. Chemical processing equipment Heat-affected zone Pipe, corrosion Repair welding Welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001254
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract The specified elongation of 10% could not be achieved in several hollow pinion gear shafts made of cast Cr-Mo steel GS 35 Cr-Mo 5 3 that were heat treated to a strength of 90 kp/sq mm. The steel was melted in a basic 3 ton arc furnace and deoxidized in the furnace...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A cast countershaft pinion on a car puller for a blast furnace broke after one month of service; expected life was 12 months. The pinion was specified to be made of 1045 steel heat treated to a hardness of 245 HRB. The pinion steel was analyzed and was a satisfactory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract Over a period of about one year, three RA 330 alloy salt pots from a single heat-treating plant were submitted to failure analysis. All of the pots, which had 9.5 mm thick walls, were used primarily to contain neutral salts at temperatures from about 815 to 900 deg C (1500...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in.) at the girth welds and 3.8 mm (0.150 in.) elsewhere. After being assembled, the motor cases were heat treated as follows: preheat to 480 °C (900 °F), stabilize at 705 °C (1300 °F) for 4 h, austenitize at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 30 min, furnace cool to 845 °C (1550 °F) and hold for 30 min, quench in salt bath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... to Heat Treating Operations , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2002 , p 192 – 223 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510 Sections of the gear were removed and examined for hardness, case depth, and microstructure of case and core. The results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract Chain link, a part of a mechanism for transferring hot or cold steel blooms into and out of a reheating furnace, broke after approximately four months of service. The link was cast from 2% Cr austenitic manganese steel and was subjected to repeated heating to temperatures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... During heat treating following forging, it was surmised that the defect led to the propagation of an internal brittle crack, or clink. A fatigue crack propagated from this origin to the outer surface of the shaft after about a year of service. Finally a last ligament of a few square inches held the shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the solution-treating furnace or minor variations in composition were responsible for the observed variability in properties of the 17-7 PH Belleville washers, all sublots attained the required strength when the solution-treating temperature was lowered to 870 °C (1600 °F). Mistakes made in heat treating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... thickness and for faster heating or cooling rates. Warpage can also be caused by inadequate support in the heat treating furnace, leading to sagging due to the weight of the part. Warpage can be the result of plastic deformation that occurred in some region of the part at elevated temperature or during...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or scanning of several pistons together on a single bar ( Ref 29 ). For heat treating problems related to furnace design and operation, it is usually suggested that ( Ref 28 ): The vestibules of atmosphere-hardening furnaces should be loaded and unloaded with purging. Load transfer for belt...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... for approximately 30 heats. At the time of failure, the pot reportedly contained a rare-earth magnesium alloy, and was being held at 1460F in an open-top cylindrical fire-brick furnace. A natural gas burner utilizing a forced air blower was used to heat the furnace and pot. The burner flame was directed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was made to analyze the causes of deformation of the steel tube, during the heat-treatment cycle. History Steel tubes having diameter 100 mm and length 300 mm were severely cold deformed. These tubes were heat treated at 910 °C for 30 min and cooled down to room temperature in the same furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0009222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... furnace are two important preventative steps. Tempering operations should never be omitted. Many heat treaters who do not observe the two precautions experience a small percentage of cracked tools in hardening. They incorrectly reason that all the tools received identical treatment and attribute...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) and 11 MPa (1600 psi). The valve stem was reported to have been solution heat treated at 1040 +/-14 deg C (1900 +/-25 deg F) for 30 min and either air quenched or oil quenched to room temperature. The stem was then reportedly aged at 550 to 595 deg C (1025 to 1100 deg F) for four hours. Investigation...