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Heat exchanger tubes, corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by corrosion fatigue initiated by pitting at the inside-diam surface. The tubes were recommended to be annealed after bending to reduce residual stresses from the bending operation to an acceptable level. Annealing Crack propagation Heat exchanger tubes Residual stresses Admiralty brass Corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Applications In a nitrogenous fertilizer plant, hot synthesis gases containing 14 to 15% ammonia are cooled in a horizontal shell-and-tube cooler/condenser in which ammonia and moisture condense. The condenser is a horizontal-tube heat exchanger ( Fig. 1 ). High-pressure hot gases entering the tube side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... exchanger tubes Metallography Optical microscopy Pulverized coal Water chemistry Copper tube Pitting corrosion A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about 10 years serving a coal pulverizer in Central Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake, passed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to the cyclic stress imposed by the tubes. The cyclic stress arised from the thermal cycling of the heat exchanger. The possible effects of material properties on the failure of the tubesheet are discussed. Heat exchangers Tube sheet Welded joints Titanium cladding Carbon steel Galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of service, multiple leaks were observed in the heat-exchanger tubes. Investigation supported the conclusion that the corrosion occurred at two general locations: the stop point of the welds used to connect the inlet and outlet legs of the heat exchanger, and the stop points on the identifying numerals...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Admiralty metal Ammonia, environment Cooling systems Heat exchanger tubes, corrosion Hydroelectric power generation C44300 UNS C44300 Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Background A brass finned tube in a generator air cooler unit failed. Applications The generator air cooler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... was simply due to corrosion, then severe attack would be present on the entire length of the outer tubes and on the inside of the heat exchanger wall. This had not occurred, thus indicating that the metal loss was not solely due to corrosion processes. The localized nature of the attack led to suspicion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... (copper alloy C61400). Heat exchangers Impingement corrosion Tubes C44300 UNS C44300 Corrosive wear Velocity-affected corrosion Tubes in heat exchangers used for cooling air failed in an increasing number after 5 to 6 years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Some of the admiralty brass tubes were failing in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger cooled air by passing river water through the inside of the tubes. The wall thickness of all tubes ranged between 1.19 to 1.27 mm (0.047 to 0.050 in.). General intergranular corrosion occurred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-transfer hardware (e.g., tubing in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger) must be resistant to general corrosion, SCC, selective leaching (e.g., dezincification of brass), and oxygen-cell attack in whatever environments are encountered before service, in service, and during periods in which the equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack, with examples. It illustrates the examination of failed parts of heat exchangers by using sample selection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...). Fig. 1 Schematic of heat-exchanger system, showing the areas of various types of corrosive attack on the inside surfaces of the tubes Circumstances Leading to Failure Premature leaking occurred through the walls of several tubes at levels near the bottom tube sheet about 1 year after new...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that a molybdenum-bearing stainless steel such as 316L or 317L be used instead of 321. Heat exchanger tubes Leakage 321 UNS S32100 Pitting corrosion AISI type 321 stainless steel tubes - from both a heat exchanger, used to pre-heat make-up water, and from a blow-down unit in the same system - were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on brass alloy 270 heat exchanger tubes that were pulled from a unit used to cool oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a hydroelectric power plant. The tubes began to leak after approximately 5.5 years of service. Macrophotography...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... less likely was suggested. Electric power generation Heat exchangers Hydraulic oil coolers Tubes C70600 UNS C70600 Crevice corrosion Leakage from the horizontal heat-exchanger tubes in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric-power plant occurred after 18 months of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... Abstract The failure of a 90-10 cupronickel heat exchanger tube resulted in flooding of the vessel and subsequently sinking it. The corrosion of the cupronickel alloy was facilitated by the high sulfur content of the seawater in which it operated. The failure modes were anodic dissolution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., to determine which contained the least-harmful corrosive chemicals. Chlorides Heat exchangers Seamless tubes Turbogenerators C44300 UNS C44300 Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... UNS S30400 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit was found to be leaking after 1 month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes, 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) in outside diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was related to operating pressure or some other unique cause. 316 UNS S31600 Transgranular fracture Stress-corrosion cracking Several air heat exchangers failed in service in a pulp and paper operation. The tubes are made from AISI 316 stainless steel with an extruded aluminum fin mechanically...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... contribute directly to the formation of calcium carbonate, a critical factor in the buildup of scale and pitting corrosion on heat exchanger tubes. heat exchanger tubes pitting corrosion scale formation IA/PA mild steel scale deposits chemical analysis calcium concentration Mild steel (alloy...