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Heat exchanger tubes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on brass alloy 270 heat exchanger tubes that were pulled from a unit used to cool oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a hydroelectric power plant. The tubes began to leak after approximately 5.5 years of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several nickel-base superalloy (UNS N06600) welded heat-exchanger tubes used in processing black liquor in a kraft paper mill failed prematurely. Leaking occurred through the tube walls at levels near the bottom tube sheet. The tubes had been installed as replacements for type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Applications In a nitrogenous fertilizer plant, hot synthesis gases containing 14 to 15% ammonia are cooled in a horizontal shell-and-tube cooler/condenser in which ammonia and moisture condense. The condenser is a horizontal-tube heat exchanger ( Fig. 1 ). High-pressure hot gases entering the tube side...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract AISI type 410 stainless steel tube bundles in a heat exchanger experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing even before being in service. The inside surfaces of the tubes was observed to have been pitted. Chloride-ion pitting was revealed by the undercutting in the cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel heat exchanger for a nitric acid concentrator. Each V-section was permanently marked with the tube numbers by a small electric-arc pencil. After one to two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 Copper-nickel alloy heat-exchanger tubes that failed from denickelification due to attack by water and steam. (a) Etched section through a copper alloy C71000 tube showing dealloying (light areas) around the tube surfaces. Etched with NH 4 OH plus H 2 O. 3.7×. (b) Unetched section through More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 10 Failed admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a refinery reformer unit. The tubes failed by corrosion fatigue. (a) Circumferential cracks on the tension (outer) surface of the U-bends. Approximately 1 1 4 ×. (b) Blunt transgranular cracking from the water side of tube 1. 40× More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 105 Example of fouling deposits on the inside of heat-exchanger tubes. Fouling greatly reduces heat transfer between the shell-side and tube-side process fluids. More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 7 Copper-nickel alloy heat-exchanger tubes that failed from denickelification due to attack by water and steam. (a) Etched section through a copper alloy C71000 tube showing dealloying (light areas) around the tube surfaces. Etched with NH 4 OH plus H 2 O. Original magnification: 3.7×. (b More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 10 Failed admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a refinery reformer unit. The tubes failed by corrosion fatigue. (a) Circumferential cracks on the tension (outer) surface of the U-bends. Original magnification: ~1.25×. (b) Blunt transgranular cracking from the water side of tube 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Pitting on the outside of a copper heat exchanger tube More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. 4×. (c) Unetched section through More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Titanium heat-exchanger tube (ASTM B337, grade 2) that became embrittled and failed because of absorption of hydrogen and oxygen at elevated temperatures. (a) Section of the titanium tube that flattened as a result of test per ASTM B 337; the first crack was longitudinal along the top More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 8 Copper alloy C44300 heat-exchanger tube that failed by impingement corrosion from turbulent flow of air and condensate along the shell-side surface. (a) Shell-side surface of tube showing damaged area. (b) Damaged surface showing ridges in affected area. Original magnification: 4×. (c More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 16 Titanium heat-exchanger tube (ASTM B337, grade 2) that became embrittled and failed because of absorption of hydrogen and oxygen at elevated temperatures. (a) Section of the titanium tube that flattened as a result of test in accordance with ASTM B 337; the first crack was longitudinal More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This study examines the role of calcium-precipitating bacteria (CPB) in heat exchanger tube failures. Several types of bacteria, including Serratia sp. (FJ973548), Enterobacter sp. (FJ973549, FJ973550), and Enterococcus sp. (FJ973551), were found in scale collected from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes...