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Heat exchanger tubes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on brass alloy 270 heat exchanger tubes that were pulled from a unit used to cool oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a hydroelectric power plant. The tubes began to leak after approximately 5.5 years of service. Macrophotography and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... containing 14 to 15% ammonia are cooled in a horizontal shell-and-tube cooler/condenser in which ammonia and moisture condense. The condenser is a horizontal-tube heat exchanger ( Fig. 1 ). High-pressure hot gases entering the tube side (ID) on the top half have inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 40 °C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Several nickel-base superalloy (UNS N06600) welded heat-exchanger tubes used in processing black liquor in a kraft paper mill failed prematurely. Leaking occurred through the tube walls at levels near the bottom tube sheet. The tubes had been installed as replacements for type 304...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5) on the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel heat exchanger for a nitric acid concentrator. Each V-section was permanently marked with the tube numbers by a small electric-arc pencil. After one to two years of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 410 stainless steel tube bundles in a heat exchanger experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing even before being in service. The inside surfaces of the tubes was observed to have been pitted. Chloride-ion pitting was revealed by the undercutting in the cross section of a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract This study examines the role of calcium-precipitating bacteria (CPB) in heat exchanger tube failures. Several types of bacteria, including Serratia sp. (FJ973548), Enterobacter sp. (FJ973549, FJ973550), and Enterococcus sp. (FJ973551), were found in scale collected from heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... cyclic stress imposed by the tubes. The cyclic stress arised from the thermal cycling of the heat exchanger. The possible effects of material properties on the failure of the tubesheet are discussed. Heat exchangers Tube sheet Welded joints Titanium cladding Carbon steel Galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer diametral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared from both...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... sulfides also present. The green deposit was also analyzed and identified as copper chloride. Copper, chlorine, zinc, and aluminum were the major constituents. Fig. 1 Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A heat exchanger failed five years after going into service in an ammonia synthesis plant. Its container, made of Cr-Mo alloy steel (Material No. 1.7362), operated in an environment that did not exceed 400 deg C or 600 atm of hydrogen partial pressure. X-ray examination revealed a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract The thin plates within a type 309 stainless steel chlorinated solvent combustion preheater/heat exchanger designed to process fumes from a solvent coating process showed severe corrosion within 6 months of service. Within a year corrosion had produced holes in the plates, allowing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0090881
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract A power plant using two steam generators (vertical U-tube and shell heat exchangers, approximately 21 m (68 ft) high with a steam drum diameter of 6 m (20 ft)) experienced a steam generator tube rupture. Each steam generator contained 11,012 Inconel alloy 600 (nickel-base alloy) tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Admiralty brass (Alloy C44300) cooling tubes which were part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provided electricity to a manufacturing plant failed. A mixture of non-recirculating city and “spring pit” water flowed through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... washers at each end. This assembly became loose, thereby allowing air under pressure to enter the waterside of the cooler and expel the water, leading to overheating and ultimately to the damage described. Air compressors Combustion Heat exchanger tubes Overheating Brass Intergranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Some of the admiralty brass tubes were failing in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger cooled air by passing river water through the inside of the tubes. The wall thickness of all tubes ranged between 1.19 to 1.27 mm (0.047 to 0.050 in.). General intergranular corrosion occurred at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion. The thinned tubes were reinforced by pad welding. Type 304 stainless steel shields were welded to the stainless steel portions of the top reheater tubes and were held in place about the chromium-molybdenum steel portions of the tubes by steel bands. Coal dust Heat exchanger tubes Thinning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... horizontal axis coils. Visual examination of the inside of the tubing indicated the presence of a carbonaceous deposit resulting from decomposition of the heat-exchanging fluid. Subsequent metallographic examination and microhardness testing indicated that the steel was heated to a temperature above the...