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Heat Exchanger Tubes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract After being in service for ten years, two admiralty brass heat-exchanger tubes from a cooler in a refinery catalytic reforming unit cracked circumferentially in the area of U-bends. A blunt transgranular cracking with minimal branching propagating from the inside surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel heat exchanger for a nitric acid concentrator. Each V-section was permanently marked with the tube numbers by a small electric-arc pencil. After one to two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract AISI type 410 stainless steel tube bundles in a heat exchanger experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing even before being in service. The inside surfaces of the tubes was observed to have been pitted. Chloride-ion pitting was revealed by the undercutting in the cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Tubes in heat exchangers, made of copper alloy C44300 and used for cooling air failed after 5 to six years of service. Air passed over the shell-side surface of the tubes and was cooled by water flowing through the tubes. Water vapor in the air was condensed (pH 4.5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Several nickel-base superalloy (UNS N06600) welded heat-exchanger tubes used in processing black liquor in a kraft paper mill failed prematurely. Leaking occurred through the tube walls at levels near the bottom tube sheet. The tubes had been installed as replacements for type...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A failure analysis was conducted on brass alloy 270 heat exchanger tubes that were pulled from a unit used to cool oil for the speed regulators and thrust bearings of a hydroelectric power plant. The tubes began to leak after approximately 5.5 years of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... to 15% ammonia are cooled in a horizontal shell-and-tube cooler/condenser in which ammonia and moisture condense. The condenser is a horizontal-tube heat exchanger ( Fig. 1 ). High-pressure hot gases entering the tube side (ID) on the top half have inlet and outlet temperatures of 280 and 40 °C (535...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract This study examines the role of calcium-precipitating bacteria (CPB) in heat exchanger tube failures. Several types of bacteria, including Serratia sp. (FJ973548), Enterobacter sp. (FJ973549, FJ973550), and Enterococcus sp. (FJ973551), were found in scale collected from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A straight-tube cooler type heat exchanger had been in service for about ten years serving a coal pulverizer in Georgia. Non-potable cooling water from a local lake passed through the inner surfaces of the copper tubing and was cooling the hot oil that surrounded the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The horizontal heat-exchanger tubes made of copper alloy C70600, in one of two hydraulic-oil coolers in an electric power plant, leaked after 18 months of service. River water was used as the coolant in the heat-exchanger tubes. Several nodules on the inner surface and holes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract AISI type 321 stainless steel heat exchanger tubes failed after only three months of service. Macroscopic examination revealed that the leaks were the result of localized pitting attack originating at the water side surfaces of the tubes. Metallographic sections were prepared...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... carbide. Failure was actually caused by overload. Had the original conclusion been accepted, a relatively exotic alloy would have been specified. In another case, brass heat exchanger tube failure was automatically attributed to attack by an acidic cleaner, and a decision was made to stop using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract The failure of a 90-10 cupronickel heat exchanger tube resulted in flooding of the vessel and subsequently sinking it. The corrosion of the cupronickel alloy was facilitated by the high sulfur content of the seawater in which it operated. The failure modes were anodic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to the cyclic stress imposed by the tubes. The cyclic stress arised from the thermal cycling of the heat exchanger. The possible effects of material properties on the failure of the tubesheet are discussed. Heat exchangers Tube sheet Welded joints Titanium cladding Carbon steel Galvanic corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Some of the admiralty brass tubes were failing in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger cooled air by passing river water through the inside of the tubes. The wall thickness of all tubes ranged between 1.19 to 1.27 mm (0.047 to 0.050 in.). General intergranular corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at welded joints because of overstress during normal operation. Dimensions given in inches Fig. 15 Titanium heat-exchanger tube (ASTM B337, grade 2) that became embrittled and failed because of absorption of hydrogen and oxygen at elevated temperatures. (a) Section of the titanium tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A tubular heat exchanger in a refinery reformer unit leaked after one month of service. The exchanger contained 167 type 304 stainless steel U-bent integral-finned tubes. Cracks in the tube wall were revealed during examination. Hardness of the tube was found to be 30 HRC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. 2 3 4 ×. (b) Higher magnification view of a pit showing the depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract While undergoing vibration testing, a type 347 stainless steel inlet header for a fuel-to-air heat exchanger cracked in the header tube adjacent to the weld bead between the tube and header duct. Investigation (visual inspection and liquid penetrant inspection) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... is stored in a large tank outside the plant. The heat exchanger contains double-walled tubes attached to a bottom tubesheet. The outside diameter of the exterior tube is approximately 2.5 cm, and the wall thickness of the tube is 3.2 mm. Steam at 383 K rises in the outer wall and returns via the inner...