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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Reformer-furnace cell from which cast tubes of ASTM A 297, HK-40, heat-resistant alloy were radiographically inspected for the detection of creep fissuring. (a) Schematic of furnace cell showing positions of radiographic sources and films. Dimensions given in inches. (b) Radiograph More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract In a HyL III heat exchanger's radiant pipes, metal dusting reduced the pipe thickness from 8.5 to 3 mm in just nine months, leaving craters on the inner surface. The pipes are fabricated from HK 40 alloy. The heated gas (400 to 800 deg C) consisted of CO, CO2, and H2, with a 4:1 CO/CO2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract A sample tube was removed from a reformer furnace for life assessment after 69,000 h of service. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C) austenitic steel of 122.5 mm OD and 10.5 mm nominal wall thickness. They were examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... filled with a nickel catalyst. The tubes were centrifugally cast from ASTM A297, grade HK-40 (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.40C), heat-resistant alloy. The tube was concluded after metallurgical inspection to have failed from creep rupture (i.e., stress rupture). A project for detecting midwall creep fissuring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An HK-40 alloy tubing weld in a reformer furnace of a petrochemical plant failed by leaking after a shorter time than that predicted by design specifications. Leaking occurred because of cracks that passed through the thickness of the weldment. Analysis of the cracked tubing indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and after heat treatment, a band of hardness (martensite) was found adjacent to the weld fusion line. The fusion line hardness was 39 to 40 HRC; the band had a maximum hardness value of 415 HK (≅41 HRC). This peak value indicated that relatively high residual stresses were present in the weld. Discussion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Another reported sub-layer is a heat-affected area adjacent to the white layer and the base metal which is substantially higher in hardness (830 HK) than the base metal (425 HK). Firing conditions, which include a short, high temperature (1800–2800C) and high pressure pulse (40–50 ksi) combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from a high alloy steel with the trade name “Supertherm”, and the reformer tubes are centrifugally cast from HK 40 steel. The manifold is made from a seamless tube of Incoloy 800H, as shown in Figure 1 . The manifold, located within the furnace, is protected externally by a refractory coating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...), with normal operating pressures of about 275 kPa (40 psig). Pertinent Specifications Four specimens were evaluated, three of which were castings: an elbow (ASME SB-148 CA 952) from a small-bore fitting and two valve bodies (ASME SB-148 CA 954), one of which did not leak. Visual Examination of General...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... calendar lives. While most rolling stock is limited to 40 years of age, it is not uncommon to encounter components that are older, especially in lightly used rail. Because of the tough environment, a primary mode of failure is fatigue. It is with good reason that freight car axles mimic the R.R. Moore...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of alloys HK-40 (26Cr-20Ni) and HL-40 (30Cr-20Ni) used extensively in ethylene-pyrolysis furnaces for many years. In service, thick deposits of carbon or coke form on the intertube walls, and it is necessary to burn these deposits away periodically by means of steam-air decoking. Examination of failed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a stream of gas consisting of 55% H 2 S, 39% CO 2 , 5% H 2 , and 1% hydrocarbons at 40 °C (100 °F) and 55 kPa (8 psi). Specifications required the clapper to be made of 13-mm ( 1 2 -in.) thick ASTM A36 steel, stress relieved and cadmium plated. Investigation Fracture occurred at the welded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... thicknesses are based on the pressure in the line and on the allowable hoop stress levels. The allowable stress levels for gas pipelines vary from 40 to 72% of the specified minimum yield strength based on the population density in the area of the pipeline and are regulated by the U.S. Department...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is relatively small compared with the number resulting from macroscopic defects. Example 1: Rupture of a Ferritic Steel Return Bend Because of Inclusions After two years of service, a return bend from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured ( Fig. 5a ). The bend was made from 115 mm (4½ in.) schedule 40 (6.0 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... materials (average Si 3 N 4 /AISI 52100, ~1.54 [unitless]), the peak pressures obtained are higher, and the hybrid ceramic REB exhibits generally lower load ratings C 0 and C . Because of this, nominal lifetimes, L hk , must be verified, both from the raceway side and the rolling-element side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to nitridation attack. Titanium and aluminum are also susceptible to nitridation attack ( Ref 21 ). Carbon-Nitrogen Interactions This type of high-temperature interaction is found in centrifugally cast furnace tubes made of HK-40 (26Cr-20Ni) and HL-40 (30Cr-20Ni) alloys used for many years in ethylene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2