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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cell, each filled with a nickel catalyst. The tubes were centrifugally cast from ASTM A297, grade HK-40 (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.40C), heat-resistant alloy. The tube was concluded after metallurgical inspection to have failed from creep rupture (i.e., stress rupture). A project for detecting midwall creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract A sample tube was removed from a reformer furnace for life assessment after 69,000 h of service. Sections were cut from the tube, which was a spindle cast A297 Grade HK 40 (25 Cr, 20 Ni, 0.4 C) austenitic steel of 122.5 mm OD and 10.5 mm nominal wall thickness. They were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract In a HyL III heat exchanger's radiant pipes, metal dusting reduced the pipe thickness from 8.5 to 3 mm in just nine months, leaving craters on the inner surface. The pipes are fabricated from HK 40 alloy. The heated gas (400 to 800 deg C) consisted of CO, CO2, and H2, with a 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An HK-40 alloy tubing weld in a reformer furnace of a petrochemical plant failed by leaking after a shorter time than that predicted by design specifications. Leaking occurred because of cracks that passed through the thickness of the weldment. Analysis of the cracked tubing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... with the trade name “Supertherm”, and the reformer tubes are centrifugally cast from HK 40 steel. The manifold is made from a seamless tube of Incoloy 800H, as shown in Figure 1 . The manifold, located within the furnace, is protected externally by a refractory coating and the temperature of the tube wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... adjacent to the weld fusion line. The fusion line hardness was 39 to 40 HRC; the band had a maximum hardness value of 415 HK (≅41 HRC). This peak value indicated that relatively high residual stresses were present in the weld. The cracking on the steam generator specimens was predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... Another reported sub-layer is a heat-affected area adjacent to the white layer and the base metal which is substantially higher in hardness (830 HK) than the base metal (425 HK). Firing conditions, which include a short, high temperature (1800–2800C) and high pressure pulse (40–50 ksi) combined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... is 825 kPa (120 psig), with normal operating pressures of about 275 kPa (40 psig). Four specimens were evaluated, three of which were castings: an elbow (ASME SB-148 CA 952) from a small-bore fitting and two valve bodies (ASME SB-148 CA 954), one of which did not leak. Microstructural Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... ⅞ 33.6 35.6 35.6 25.4 1 35.7 35.9 35.8 AAR, Association of American Railroads Microhardness profiles Table 5 Microhardness profiles Spacing Mount 1 Mount 2 mm in. HK HRC HK HRC 0.51 0.02 558 51 557 51 1.02 0.04 523 49 519 49...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a stream of gas consisting of 55% H 2 S, 39% CO 2 , 5% H 2 , and 1% hydrocarbons at 40 °C (100 °F) and 55 kPa (8 psi). Specifications required the clapper to be made of 13-mm ( 1 2 -in.) thick ASTM A36 steel, stress relieved and cadmium plated. Investigation Fracture occurred at the welded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Incineration Environment,” Paper 248, Corrosion/91, National Association of Corrosion Engineers International , 1991 39. Krause H.H. , J. Mater. Energy Syst. , Vol 7 , 1986 , p 322 40. Krause H.H. , Hot Corrosion in Boilers Burning Municipal Solid Waste , Corrosion , Vol 13...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that is foreign to the pipe wall. The hardness is 870 HK and probably came from the hard surfacing materials used for construction equipment bucket and blade edges. This apparently became friction welded to the gouged surface during the damage process. Failure of mechanically damaged areas can occur from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is relatively small compared with the number resulting from macroscopic defects. Example 1: Rupture of a Ferritic Steel Return Bend Because of Inclusions After two years of service, a return bend from a triolefin-unit heater ruptured ( Fig. 5a ). The bend was made from 115 mm (4½ in.) schedule 40 (6.0 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Angeles, 0.002 ppm SO 2 Beijing, 0.055 ppm SO 2 Delhi, 0.007 ppm SO 2 Turbine, Bornstein Concentration, μmol/m 3 0.006–0.02 0.12–0.41 0.38–0.64 … Na 2 SO 4 , mol% 48–52 12–21 32–56 40–60 K 2 SO 4 , mol% 7–11 9–28 10–16 4–9 MgSO 4 , mol% 17 10–12 10–17 18...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to +100 (−20 to +210) −30 to +120 (−20 to +250) −20 to +150 (−4 to +300) −10 to +220 (+14 to 430) −40 to +130 (−40 to +265) Media resistance guide Mineral oil Good Good Dedicated Dedicated Not recommended Synthetic oil Not indicated Good Dedicated Dedicated Not recommended...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2