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Grinding wheels, Materials substitution

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0091853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... the conclusion that the primary feed material was harder than the grinding plates, causing wear and eventual failure. Recommendations included reducing the clearance between the flutes and possible material changes. Grinding wheels, Materials substitution Milling Gray iron Abrasive wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with nital Abrasive wheels should be selected according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Wheels consist of abrasive particles, chiefly alumina or silicon carbide (SiC), and filler in a binder material that may be a resin, rubber, or a mixture of resin and rubber. Alumina is the preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... worn small by the previous rope will subject the new rope to unnecessary abrasion in its attempt to grind the groove to its own diameter. To avoid this condition, the sheave-groove material should be selected to resist the wear corresponding to the rope pressure that will be present. Table 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to determine if a contour change occurs there. Grinding away high spots is often more effective than adding material to the erosion pit caused by the high spot. This approach is illustrated in Fig. 14 , where metal-removal contours have been marked upstream of an eroded area on a hydroturbine blade...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lattice spacing, d 0 , can be substituted with the d -spacing measured for the specimen of interest at ψ (psi) = 0; that is, the unstressed lattice spacing need not be known precisely for the material in question ( Ref 3 ). To evaluate stresses in the direction normal to the specimen surface σ 33...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the visual or macroscopic examination of damaged materials and interpretation of damage and fracture features. Analytical tools available for evaluations of corrosion and wear damage features include energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., for typical types of damage experienced for metallic components. This article discusses the processes involved in visual or macroscopic examination of damaged material; the interpretation of fracture features, corrosion, and wear damage features; and the analysis of base material composition. It covers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., or for finite-life estimates of materials that do, the fatigue strength at a given number of cycles can be substituted for the intercept on the stress-amplitude axis. Examples of the Haigh and constant-life diagrams are provided in Fig. 3 and 4 ( Ref 1 ). Figure 4 is of interest also because of its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metallographic examination microfractography process simulation visual examination X-ray techniques FAILURES may be caused by any of the following factors or combinations of factors: Design shortcomings Material imperfections due to faulty processing or fabrication Overloading and other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... applied as early as 1925 to the measurement of residual stress on a variety of materials ( Ref 10 ). Considerable advances have since been made in detector speed and resolution ( Ref 11 , 12 ), data analysis and handling (due primarily to the advent of the personal computer), and equipment portability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a detrimental effect on fatigue life. For materials that do not have a fatigue limit or for finite-life assessment of structures, the fatigue strength can be substituted and supplemented by the stress amplitude for a given number of cycles (finite-life fatigue diagram). Variable-Amplitude Loading Because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and in general are either electronic or mechanical in principle. Obviously, small size and light weight are advantages in portable testers. The major components of the portable laboratory may include: A custom-made machine, plus auxiliary materials, for grinding and polishing small, mounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract Materials selection is closely related to the objectives of failure analysis and prevention. This article briefly reviews the general aspects of materials selection as a concern in both proactive failure prevention during design and as a possible root cause of failed parts. Coverage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... processing steps are usually best addressed by specialists. Many codes and specifications allow a broad range of materials selections, whereas other codes are very specific and allow few substitutions. What It Must Be After the component is envisioned, the environment is evaluated, and the constraints...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article focuses on the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting process, casting material, and design with examples. The casting processes discussed include gravity die casting, pressure die casting, semisolid casting, squeeze casting, and centrifugal casting. Cast...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the intended function is decreased. The article addresses factors that may cause failures in castings for each metal type, starting with gray iron and progressing to ductile iron, steel, aluminum, and copper-base alloys. It describes the general root causes of failure attributed to the casting material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to 3% of the total items to be carbon steel. A survey of equipment that required 320,000 individual instrument readings found that 1.8% of the material was supplied incorrectly, and the most frequent error was substitution of carbon steel for alloy or stainless steel, or vice versa ( Ref 1 ). Summary...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to examine a number of bulk items supposedly made of alloy steels and found 1 to 3% of the total items to be carbon steel. A survey of equipment that required 320,000 individual instrument readings found that 1.8% of the material was supplied incorrectly, and the most frequent error was substitution...