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Graphitization, Heating effects

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... steels with chromium additions such as ASTM A213 Grade T11 or T22, which are resistant to graphitization damage. Boiler tubes Creep (materials) Graphitization, Heating effects Mechanical properties Microstructural effects Overheating ASTM A209 grade T1 UNS K11522 High-temperature corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... graphite; MG, mixed graphite; CG, compacted graphite Effect of molybdenum content on the elevated-temperature tensile properties of 4% Si ductile iron Table 4 Effect of molybdenum content on the elevated-temperature tensile properties of 4% Si ductile iron Iron (a) 0.2% offset yield...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( 1 8 in.) or less in diameter. A continuous graphite film is often found in these holes, although an iron oxide layer may be present if the castings are heat treated. Nonmetallic inclusions are not present in the voids, but some have been found to contain a small bead of metal. Pinholes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for reducing the likelihood of overload fractures are included. The article focuses primarily on the contribution of embrittlement to overload failure. The embrittling phenomena are described and differentiated by their causes, effects, and remedial methods, so that failure characteristics can be directly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on the graphitization of steel . In: The Annual Meeting of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers , Nov. 1953 5. Baranov A.A. : Effect of plastic strain on graphitization of steel . Met. Sci. Heat Treat. 3 , 17 – 18 ( 1961 ) 10.1007/BF00815235 6. Neri M.A. , Colás R...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the root cause of an overload failure. It also presents examples of thermally and environmentally induced embrittlement effects that can alter the overload fracture behavior of metals. atomic structure brittle cracking crack propagation crystalline structure ductile cracking ductility...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Dissimilar Metals The combination of dissimilar metals in engineering design is quite common—for example, in heating or cooling coils in vessels, heat exchangers, or machinery. Such combinations often lead to galvanic corrosion. The obvious design considerations to minimize the adverse effects of using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... The combination of dissimilar metals in engineering design is quite common, for example, in heating or cooling coils in vessels, heat exchangers, or machinery. Such combinations often lead to galvanic corrosion. The obvious design considerations to minimize the adverse effects of using dissimilar metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., but estimates only. Figure 5 indicates the effects that different heat fluxes have on tube-wall temperature. In the region where subcooled water contacts the tube (at left, Fig. 5 ), the resistance of the fluid film is relatively low; therefore, a small temperature difference sustains heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on corrosion failures of refractories and technical ceramics. On the slagging issue only, viscosity, velocity, actual time contact, temperature, partial pressures, total pressure, heat transfer, and mass transfer have a direct effect on failure rates. As an example, Ref 18 includes an enlightening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that exceeded 5900 kg (13,000 lb), the observations made in this investigation suggested that either the load was underestimated or that the indicated load was applied at a more rapid rate (perhaps with a jerk), which would tend to increase the effective force of the load. Castings T hooks 60-40-18 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0047312
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that exceeded 5900 kg (13,000 lb), the observations made in this investigation suggested that either the load was underestimated or that the indicated load was applied at a more rapid rate (perhaps with a jerk), which would tend to increase the effective force of the load. Castings T hooks 60-40-18 UNS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of circumstances. Intermittent operation can also affect the life of pressure vessels. Long periods of inactivity greatly enhance the probability of internal or external corrosion. During long shutdown periods, a common effective practice is to pressurize the system with nitrogen, to avoid corrosion. Wet lay...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...: the secondary effect of galvanic coupling, hydrogen embrittlement. Bolts Galvanic corrosion Spacecraft 17-4 PH UNS S17400 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Fig. 1 Success of the mission depends greatly on the reliability of high-strength stainless steel fasteners. Analysis of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that yields a compressive residual stress in the fillet, appropriate heat treatment of stamped discs, or redesign of the disc and/or transmission assembly was recommended. Mechanical transmissions Residual stress Stampings Stress concentration Winches 1015 UNS G10150 Fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to location in weld and base metal. 1, crater crack in weld metal; 2, transverse crack in weld metal; 3, transverse crack in heat-affected zone; 4, longitudinal crack in weld metal; 5, toe crack in base metal; 6, underbead crack in base metal; 7, fusion-line crack; 8, root crack in weld metal; 9, hat cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects can cause metallurgical changes that alter the mechanical and corrosion properties of materials. Graphitization is a microstructural change that can occur in carbon and low-alloy steels. Pearlite (alternating ferrite and Fe 3 C platelet structure) normally found in such steels transforms in time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and 540 °C. In these conditions, the decomposition of cementite yields graphite, which reduces tensile strength. This effect is a faster strength reduction due to the globulization of carbides. Therefore, steels must include alloying elements with strong carbide-forming properties in order to prevent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... powder was placed on the bottom of the graphite crucible to contrast any glass that might leak from the melter during the test. A prototypic charge of glass was added to the CIM and slowly heated to 1450 °C. The CIM remained at this temperature for approximately 1 2 h. The melter was allowed...