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Grain size

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture. Metallographic examination of samples revealed an extremely large grain size and corroborated fatigue fracture. Chemical analysis indicated that the material conformed to the requirements for type 316L stainless steel. Substandard-size tensile bars machined from another prosthesis from the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... welding. The metal was identified to be 1020 steel. It was indicated by the coarse as-rolled structure (grain size of ASTM 00 to 4) of the base metal that the weldment (stop block and guide) had not been normalized. The brittle failure was evaluated to have been initiated at a metallurgical and mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A 22 m (72 ft) diameter filled grain storage bin made from a 0.2% carbon steel collapsed at a temperature of −1 to 4 deg C (30 to 40 deg F). Failure analysis indicated that fracture occurred in a two-step process: first downward, by ductile failure of small ligament from a bolt hole...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... 18CrNi3Mo steel. Investigators also found evidence of inclusions and prior austenite grain size, although it was determined that neither played a role in the failure. Rather, according to test data, the failure occurred because of stress concentration (due to geometric discontinuities along the tooth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract Both rods in a Harrington rod cervical stent failed after a short time in service. Metallurgical analysis revealed a significant number of notches as well as enlarged grain size in one of the two rods, rough shallow-cracked surfaces along the bend profiles, possible signs of corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... sealed compressor chamber. A unique combination of applied stress, residual stress, stress riser, and grain size helped isolate the failure mechanism to a single production lot of material. fastening pin corrosion stress concentration copper alloys grain size variations scanning electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... revealed that the cracks initiated at the outer surface by a combined mechanism of creep and intergranular embrittlement. A smaller grain size resulting from cold bending fabrication procedures for the curved parts was responsible for accelerating the embrittlement. It was recommended that hot bending be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Small archived billet samples of the AMS 6414 steel heat for the LF14 crankshaft forging blanks were heat-treated and CVN impact-tested. No PDF features were found on these fracture surfaces. The ASTM 3.0–3.5 prior Austenite grain sizes of these billets were relatively large even for 121 mm (4¾-inch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... investigation revealed that the reason for the fracture was the presence of large carbides at the grain boundaries and in the grain matrix. This led to the formation of microcracks that propagated along the grain boundaries under in-service working forces. It is also believed that the precipitation of carbides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... vending machine. Micrograph shows localized corrosion along manganese sulfide stringer inclusions at the end-grain surface. 100× Type 303 stainless steel has only marginal corrosion resistance for this application, because of the size and distribution of sulfide stringers found in some lots of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the outer surface in residual compression. However, the bellows was placed in tension when installed, and the tensile stresses reopened the microcrack. This five to eight grain diameter microcrack was extended by ductile fatigue processes. Initial extension was by relatively rapid propagation through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the fine grain-size (ASTM 6–7) of the Incoloy 800 Grade II used at the time. The manifolds were replaced in Incoloy 800H and taken into operation in 1977 1 . From then on the manifolds were regularly inspected. During a scheduled shut-down in 1987 a diametrical expansion of 1.1% was measured at one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... tubes and (b) general air flow and formation of dead zone at the rear end The local bursting observed in Stage 3 tubes was due to attack of the flue gas species at local non-homogeneities (chemistry or grain size). The high nonmetallic inclusion content in the steel resulted in local...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... associated with grain coarsening, which is an interfacially controlled growth event due to heating [ 5 ]. In this case, the grain size increased to ASTM 2 from its initial grain size of ASTM 10 measured in the ABZ specimen. Microstructural examination at the inner surface also showed formation of voids at...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... direction. Indeed, one of the ways to improve creep resistance in an alloy is to increase the average grain size, which decreases the overall grain boundary area. Optical and SEM backscatter photographs documenting creep induced voiding along transverse grain boundaries within an equiaxed airfoil casting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... beam size approximately 100 nm, and energy resolution of 0.3%. The SAM samples were broken in the test chamber and under a vacuum better than 6 × 10 –8 Pa, and survey spectra analyses were conducted immediately after fracture. The sensitivity factor method was used for calculation. Grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... macrovoids and the concentration of stresses at their tips, caused extensive localized plastic deformation which led to the formation of microvoids and subsequently to the spalling of the oxide film. The non-protective character of the film induced a progressive deterioration of the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., as indicated by Charpy impact testing (3.9 J, or 2.9 ft . lbf). The coarse grain structure of the forging, accompanied by inferior chemical composition with regard to manganese, resulted in poor impact values. Normalizing at 900°C (1650°F) slightly improved the grain size, which resulted in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., had also been attacked. The attack ends fairly precisely where the normal grain size of the pipe material begins again. The weld seam was very coarse-grained ( Fig. 3 ), and also the transition zone was strongly overheated and in places the grain boundaries were oxidized due to burning ( Fig. 4 ). In...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... As-cast grain size can be construed from fracture surface contrast. (b) Diagram of significant features; arrows show fracture directions. Areas 1, 2, and 3 represent cleavage “flakes”. Cross-hatched area around flake 1 is overload fracture in same original cast grain as underlying flake. Stippled...