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Grain flow

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Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Macrograph showing grain flow within the threads of the LAU-7 bolt. Note the flow does not follow the contour of the threads, indicating the threads were cut (machined) rather than rolled. (12.5× magnification) More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 5 Metallographic cross section showing the grain flow characteristics and intergranular corrosion adjacent to fracture edge (arrow). More
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 3 Representative macrograph showing direction of grain flow. 7.88×. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... for aluminum alloy 2014-T6 and the hardness surpassed the minimum hardness required for aluminum alloy 2014-T6. An abrupt change in the direction of grain flow across the fracture plane indicated that the wall had buckled during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that the wheel half failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0046182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the fracture surface revealed grain flow normal for this type of forging, but no visible defects. 400x metallographic examination of a section through the fracture surface showed that the microstructure was an acceptable tempered martensite. However, oxide inclusions were present at the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... inspection, and micrographs with deep etching in aqueous 20% sodium hydroxide) supported the conclusion that failure on both wheel halves was by fatigue caused by a forging defect resulting from abnormal transverse grain flow. The crack in the first wheel half occurred during service, and the surfaces became...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the elongation grains from longitudinal to transverse at the fusion zone. Fig. 5 Metallographic cross section showing the grain flow characteristics and intergranular corrosion adjacent to fracture edge (arrow). Fig. 6 Scanning electron micrograph showing intergranular corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... bolts Grain flow Carburizing Hy-Tuf UNS K325599 Heat treating related failures Metalworking related failures Stress-corrosion cracking Introduction Component: LAU-7 missile launcher attachment bolts Manufacturing defects: Machining rather than forging/inadvertent carburization...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
. Grain flow in this area was at an angle to applied stress, which resulted in end grain exposure. 105x. (d) SEM fractograph taken between the arrows in (b). Note intergranular fracture pattern indicative of SCC. 95x. (e) SEM taken near the termination of the fracture showing the crack still progressing More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...) 1089 158 1385 207 28.0 177 25.6 Drwg Min. 1035 150 1240 180 12 … … Fig. 3 Representative macrograph showing direction of grain flow. 7.88×. Fig. 2 Failed detent spring in the as-received condition. 0.2×. Fig. 1 Engineering drawing of the detent spring...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
on light gray fracture area). (c) Section through the crack and the disrupted grain flow. Etched with sodium hydroxide. Approximately 8 1 2 × More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... formed parts cracking cracks forging grain flow heat treatment hydrogen content imperfections ingot pipe laminations metalworking nonmetallic inclusions pits porosity scabs seams sheet metal forming unmelted electrodes workability WROUGHT FORMS are produced by a wide variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with circumferential lathe or grinding marks, the deformation may be difficult to see. Components with longitudinal features that have been subject to torsional overload, such as Fig. 11 , are readily identifiable. Altered grain flow and cold work are usually visible in the etched metallographic section. Fig. 11...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...). Suspected multiple initiation sites are located between arrows. 1.5x. (c) Section of flange with surface at right. Grain flow in this area was at an angle to applied stress, which resulted in end grain exposure. 105x. (d) SEM fractograph taken between the arrows in (b). Note intergranular fracture pattern...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by subjecting the overheated tube to a flattening test that the tube no longer met ASTM B 337 specifications. Large grain size and numerous needlelike hydride particles were disclosed in the microstructure of the overheated tube. Heating to approximately 815 deg C was revealed by the presence of the flaky oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... near the parting line of the forging was larger than the grain size in the surrounding area. This indicated that either this area of the forging was not worked as much as the rest of the forging; there was uneven flow, or this area received more heat, all of which can cause the grains to grow larger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0048164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of time before final fracture occurred. Microscopic examination of longitudinal and transverse sections near the fracture confirmed that the material had suffered extensive grain flow from cold working in the brinelled areas. The general microstructure was fine-grained tempered martensite of good...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Examination of the microstructure near the fracture revealed that the crack was progressing parallel to the transverse grain flow direction and further suggested SCC. Chemical analysis and hardness tests conducted on the submitted material showed it to be within specification requirements for 7075-T651...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
..., the individual corrosion pits acted as stress raisers and initiated coarse grain spalling. Due to a bending moment on the rotating element, this in turn initiated bending fatigue normal to the longitudinal axis, which propagated through to the bore of the inner ring. Stain marks were visible in the bore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract An eddy current survey of the copper evaporator (chiller) tubes in an absorption air-conditioning unit revealed two tubes in the evaporator bundle with indications typical of longitudinal cracks. Significant necking down and grain distortion at the fracture surfaces was revealed...