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Grain boundary sliding

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Showing creep damage in the pipe in the form of grain boundary sliding and cracking. Unetched. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture The petrochemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... transfer zone of the coil. It showed that many damage mechanisms may combine in the transition from fracture initiation to final failure. The presence of grain boundary sliding as an indication of creep damage was useful in the characterization of the stress level as high and showed that the process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... mechanism, namely grain boundary sliding, relating to the periodic nature of the loading, with high residual stresses being present. Grain boundary sliding Petrochemical equipment Transfer piping Welded joints 316 UNS S31600 Creep fracture/stress rupture Leakage was detected at the welds...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Details (three views at increasing magnification) of remnant external cracks adjacent to the repair weld (unetched material). The grain boundary creep pore was formed by grain boundary sliding. More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Details of cracking shown in Figure 5 with the SEM (unetched). The damage was produced by grain boundary sliding in alternate directions following reversal of the local stress. Figures 7e and 7f show, respectively, the distribution of chromium and nickel in the area of 7d . More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... removal of the external cracks by grinding. Fig. 6 Details (three views at increasing magnification) of remnant external cracks adjacent to the repair weld (unetched material). The grain boundary creep pore was formed by grain boundary sliding. Fig. 7 Details of cracking shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... uses single crystal turbine blades. Obtaining a single crystal in the drain tube is highly unlikely. Therefore, the high temperature weaknesses of the grain boundaries and the tendency of grain boundary sliding and void formation need to be addressed. One possible solution to the tendency for creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of decohesions which are the evidence of superplastic behavior in the steel and consequence of the grain sliding. Also, Fig. 11 shows another type of decohesion resulting from boundary sliding of three grains (one grain displaces the other two). The authors thank the Department of Metal Sheet and Hot Coil...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) fracture, viz., in low temperature RTE fracture, initiation and propagation of microcracks are rate controlling while at high temperatures the nucleation and growth of creep cavitation, dislocation mobility and grain boundary sliding are important. Wilkinson et al ( 6 ) observed that the ductility of P...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enough, dislocations rearrange and annihilate through recovery events. On a more macroscopic scale, creep deformation also produces microstructural changes, such as slip bands, grain-boundary sliding, cavity formation and growth, and cracking (grain boundary, interphase boundary, and transgranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of creep may manifest as grain-boundary movement or sliding, dislocation glide, dislocation glide plus climb, and/or the diffusion of chemical species within the lattice. The rate equation that governs most forms of crystalline creep may be simplified to the following functional form ( Ref 2 ): (Eq 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the grain-boundary sliding Grain-boundary carbides (in polycrystalline materials) to reduce the creep rate by inhibiting grain-boundary sliding The way in which cracking occurs could be envisioned as oxidation of a grain boundary at high temperatures and cracking by slip-band impingement at low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and annihilate through recovery events. Creep deformation also produces microstructural changes, such as slip bands, grain-boundary sliding, cavity formation and growth, and cracking (grain boundary, interphase boundary, and transgranular). There are others, some of which are very important. One is in situ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... produced by fatigue, which grew from the intergranular crack tips.2% nital etch. Crack Origins/Paths Sections through the cracking revealed intergranular cracks penetrating approximately 0.13 mm (0.005 in.) into the steel, along the prior-austenite grain boundaries. Most of these cracks were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to as plane-strain microvoid coalescence) or occurs preferentially in the limited region adjacent to the grain boundary (resulting in a dimpled intergranular fracture surface). These types of ductile and brittle fractures are discussed in more detail later in this article. Fig. 9 Observed microscopic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with smooth grain boundaries Likely either improper thermal processing or environmental assisted fracture (high temperature, corrosive environment) Less common is low Δ K fatigue Intergranular with dimpled grain boundaries “Decohesive rupture—fracture at high fraction of melting point...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for metallurgical examination to determine cause of failure. The fractured surface morphology for both rods was shown in Figs. 10 and 11 ; both samples revealed grain boundary fractures, akin to grain boundary decohesion. The general surface morphology in the straight regions of the rods was shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: Ref 55 Microstructure Microstructural inhomogeneity (e.g., presence of second phases, interphase boundaries, and grain boundaries) promotes galvanic corrosion ( Ref 58 – 60 ). During the galvanic corrosion process, active regions such as grain boundaries and interphase boundaries tend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... alloys (up to ~1000 HV) by means of a pin abrasion test and employing abrasive papers with SiC grains with three different average diameters (i.e., three different attack angles, approximately 15, 10, and 5°). The researchers determined that Φ initially increases with hardness up to ~400 kg/mm 2...