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Grain boundary melting

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Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Grain boundary melting and particles on grain surfaces characterize fracture away from center of failure. Magnification 840 times. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-induced fractures made at room and elevated temperatures with the bracket failure. The service failure exhibited grain separation and loss of delineation of the grain boundaries due to melting. SEM revealed deep voids between grains and tendrils that connected grains, which resulted from surface tension...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
(2225 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, 1175 °C (2150 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench (not tempered). Etched with 10% nital. 400×. (c) Overaustenitization and onset of grain-boundary melting: 1260 °C (2300 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, double temper at 540 °C (1000 °F). Arrows indicate regions More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
without annealing: 1220 °C (2225 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, 1175 °C (2150 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench (not tempered). Etched with 10% nital. Original magnification: 400×. (c) Overaustenitization and onset of grain-boundary melting: 1260 °C (2300 °F) for 5 min in salt, oil quench, double More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The localized cracks in the air bottle were from grain-boundary eutectic melting caused by local torch overheating used in preparation for assembly welding of a port fitting. A change in design was scheduled to semiautomatic welding without the use of preheating for the joining of the port fitting for the dome...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 On impact sample, white arrows point out intermetallics and dark arrows indicate grain boundary melting. Magnification 840 times. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of grain boundary melting. Figure 1 is an artists rendition of lightning striking a 757 in Air Force colors. Figure 2 shows a 19-mm (0.75 in.) diameter cookie-cut taken around the rivet with the most severe region of fuselage skin melting. Section A-A was metallographically examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... pipe hot cracking grain boundary segregation stainless steel tear ridges melt bridging microfractography induction heating frequency X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 (titanium-stabilized austenitic stainless steel) UNS S31635 Introduction Large austenitic stainless steel piping used for manifolds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... precipitate was caused by overheat of the low sulfur steel, and an incipient melting of grain boundary junctions was caused by overheat of the ultra-low sulfur steel. The precipitates and incipient melting in these two failed crankshafts were observed during the examination. As expected, impact fractures from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of tensile tests conducted near the incipient melting temperature at the grain boundaries. All kingpins made by the supplier of the fractured ones were ultrasonically inspected and six more anticipated to fail were found. It was recommended that the heating of forging blanks be more carefully controlled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
.../molybdenum eutectic temperature. Small regions on the end of the 690 sheath showed evidence of melting, indicating that this localized region exceeded 1345 deg C, the melting point of 690. In addition to nickel, antimony was found on the grain boundaries of the molybdenum electrode. This also contributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0046953
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of large grains and enlarged grain boundaries. An area a short distance away from the melted zone was fine grained and relatively free of massive carbides. This evidence supported the conclusion that the vessel failed by melting that resulted from heating to about 1230 to 1260 deg C (2250 to 2300 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... coarser network of rod-shaped and plate-shaped precipitates was found, that probably corresponded to the primary grain boundaries, or to the grain boundaries or twin planes of the austenite formed during solidification of the melt. These particles could have been aluminum nitride judging by their shape...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the severe temperature-rise occurred. When the temperature reached the melting-point of copper, 1083° C., molten metal would come into contact with the bolt, into which it would penetrate along the grain boundaries, culminating in rupture. The requisite tensile stress is presumed to have resulted from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... at high initial forging temperature. Another block melted under the same conditions and immediately after the defective one, was forged into a gear ring without any trouble. This ring was free of grain boundary precipitates, but it contained only 0.012 % AI and 0.0102 % N. Cracking (fracturing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... on the fixture surface and that this could have penetrated the stainless steel in the presence of tensile thermal-contraction stresses. The cracks in the weldments were a form of liquid-metal embrittlement caused by contact with superficially melted copper from the fixture and subsequent grain-boundary attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... on the grain boundaries were beginning to coalesce and form larger holes ( Fig. 8 ). Grain boundary ditching or widening was also evident in this photomicrograph. Other asperities appeared smooth, as if they had melted and flowed back into the bulk material ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 8 SEM photographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was cleavage, probably caused by cast-in hydrogen. The intergranular appearance resulted from heat treatment of the already cracked part, which caused the formation of grain-boundary “growth figures” on the exposed crack surfaces. It was recommended that the castings be more closely inspected for defects...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 SEM photographs of the exterior of the CIM drain tube. (a) Voids visible on the grain boundary near the holes and widening of the grain boundaries characteristic of incipient melting (see arrows). (b) Area appearing to have melted More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... particles could be either copper or a copper alloy as shown by the optical and SEM microphotographs. The diffusion of copper (melting point 1080 °C) in to the grain steel boundaries was the reason for the cracks on the bend extrados surface. Copper diffusion weakens the austenite grain boundary at ~980 °C...