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Gas pipelines

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract On 9 March 2000, a gasoline pipeline failed near Greenville, TX releasing approximately 12,000 barrels of fuel. After the on-scene portion of the investigation was completed, an 8.5 ft. (2.6 m) section of the 28 in. (71 cm) diam pipe was sent to the materials laboratory for examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to the 10-cm (4-in.) steel main to extend the main. Smaller service lines carried gas from the mains to the residences. Acommon maintenance practice on PE pipelines is the use of a bar clamp to squeeze the pipe flat whenever the flow of gas is to be stopped for down-stream maintenance. This greatly reduces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation modes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... propagation were needed be controlled. It was concluded that improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. Chemical composition Ductile brittle transition Gas pipelines Steel making API 5L...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be described. Characteristics of High-Pressure Long-Distance Pipelines Three general types of pipelines exist: gathering lines, transmission lines, and distribution lines. Gas or crude oil gathering lines exist between a well and a treatment plant or collection point. These are usually relatively small...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... may drop. This measure was ultimately recommended, deemed more effective and cheaper. Blistering Cracking (fracturing) Hydrogen sulfide Natural gas Pipelines Fe-0.22C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A welded natural gas line of 400 mm O.D. and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion damage after three years' exposure. This change was made five years ago and there have been no failures since. Corrosion environments Gas pipelines Inhibitors Materials substitution Sweet gas Carbon steel Erosion - corrosion Velocity-affected corrosion A wall section of a carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... system at appropriate locations were recommended. Electrostatic fields Gas pipelines Static electricity Thrust bearings Turbogenerators Silver (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Background The silver layer on a thrust bearing face in a power turbine experienced...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel pipeline for carrying hot nitrogen gas from heater to turbine that failed in the bellows section because of grain-boundary embrittlement. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the formation of polythionic acid in the process gas. ring type pipe joint fracture polythionic acid stainless steel transgranular fracture fractography creep strength 347 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S34700 321 (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S32100 Introduction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the corrosion process to produce insoluble black iron sulfide. Traditional models for predicting MIC in liquid pipelines in the oil and gas sector made the presence of iron sulfide at significant concentrations (>10 μg/cm 2 ) on the steel surface a prerequisite for MIC ( Ref 24 , 25 ). In waters where...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Pipelines are the most economical mode of transportation of oil and natural gas from the production site to the consumer. Several large pipeline projects have been initiated in India to meet the increasing demand for oil and gas transportation. The demand for higher transportation capacity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of Pipeline Corrosion , 2nd edn. , pp. 252 – 254 . NACE International ( 2001 ) 3. Kaiser B.A. : Lightning protection for pipeline compressor stations and other facilities . Pipeline Gas J. 232 ( 11 ), 64 ( 2005 ) Selected references Selected references • Tanzer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to 290 °C (500 to 550 °F) and leaving at 425 to 480 °C (800 to 900 °F). The temperature of the combustion gas was 900 °C (1650 °F). Fig. 1 Return bend made of ASTM A213, grade T11, ferritic steel that ruptured because it contained a large number of inclusions. (a) Overall view of the return bend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... may cause density variations on a radiograph. When possible, they should be removed before a weld is radiographed; when impossible to remove, they must be considered during radiography interpretation. Subsurface Discontinuities Subsurface discontinuities detectable by radiography include gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract During the construction of a large-diam pipeline, several girth welds had to be cut out as a result of radiographic interpretation. The pipeline was constructed of 910 mm (36 in.) diam x 13 mm (0.5 in.) wall thickness grade X448 (x65) line pipe. The girth welds were fabricated using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., shown in Fig. 1 , is a bent tube (elbow) that is used to transfer a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons into a burner at the end of a process line. The fuel gas also contains hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is scrubbed off by reacting with a caustic NaOH solution inside a reaction tower. The scrubbed stream...