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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to the 10-cm (4-in.) steel main to extend the main. Smaller service lines carried gas from the mains to the residences. Acommon maintenance practice on PE pipelines is the use of a bar clamp to squeeze the pipe flat whenever the flow of gas is to be stopped for down-stream maintenance. This greatly reduces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A natural gas pipeline explosion and subsequent fire significantly altered the pipeline steel microstructure, obscuring in part the primary cause of failure, namely, coating breakdown at a local hard spot in the steel. Chemical analysis was made on pieces cut from the portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... presented. degradation mechanisms failure analysis hydrogen cracking pipeline flaws steel transmission pipelines HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, such as liquid petroleum products and natural gas, are typically transported via truck, rail, sea, and/or pipeline. Of these different transportation modes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... propagation were needed be controlled. It was concluded that improved steel processing procedures, chiefly hot-working temperature and deformation control, were also required to optimize microstructure and properties. Chemical composition Ductile brittle transition Gas pipelines Steel making API 5L...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be described. Characteristics of High-Pressure Long-Distance Pipelines Three general types of pipelines exist: gathering lines, transmission lines, and distribution lines. Gas or crude oil gathering lines exist between a well and a treatment plant or collection point. These are usually relatively small...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Stainless steel pipeline for carrying hot nitrogen gas from heater to turbine that failed in the bellows section because of grain-boundary embrittlement. Dimensions given in inches More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... may drop. This measure was ultimately recommended, deemed more effective and cheaper. Blistering Cracking (fracturing) Hydrogen sulfide Natural gas Pipelines Fe-0.22C Hydrogen damage and embrittlement A welded natural gas line of 400 mm O.D. and 9 mm wall thickness made of unalloyed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... black tar-like coating was cracked. Gas pipelines Welded joints Pipeline steel Ductile fracture Fatigue fracture Pitting corrosion The National Transportation Safety Board simultaneously investigates major accidents in different modes of transportation at any time. The services...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of corrosion damage after three years' exposure. This change was made five years ago and there have been no failures since. Corrosion environments Gas pipelines Inhibitors Materials substitution Sweet gas Carbon steel Erosion - corrosion Velocity-affected corrosion A wall section of a carbon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... system at appropriate locations were recommended. Electrostatic fields Gas pipelines Static electricity Thrust bearings Turbogenerators Silver (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure Background The silver layer on a thrust bearing face in a power turbine experienced...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., and ( d ) magnified view of the region marked in ( c ) Abstract A ring-type joint in a reactor pipeline for a hydrocracker unit had failed. Cracks were observed on the flange and the associated ring gasket during an inspection following a periodic shutdown of the unit. The components were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Pipelines are the most economical mode of transportation of oil and natural gas from the production site to the consumer. Several large pipeline projects have been initiated in India to meet the increasing demand for oil and gas transportation. The demand for higher transportation capacity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... International ( 2001 ) 3. Kaiser B.A. : Lightning protection for pipeline compressor stations and other facilities . Pipeline Gas J. 232 ( 11 ), 64 ( 2005 ) Selected references Selected references • Tanzer , Determination and Classification of Damage , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by the corrosion process to produce insoluble black iron sulfide. Traditional models for predicting MIC in liquid pipelines in the oil and gas sector made the presence of iron sulfide at significant concentrations (>10 μg/cm 2 ) on the steel surface a prerequisite for MIC ( Ref 24 , 25 ). In waters where...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects are of significant concern in failure analysis and prevention. Microbially induced corrosion problems afflict water-handling operations and manufacturing processes in oil and gas production, pipelining, refining, petrochemical synthesis, power production, fermentation, waste water treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... was found to terminate at the welds that joined the bend to the pipeline. A high concentration of both small and large inclusions was exhibited by the metallographic examination of the steel near the fracture. Branched cracks similar to those produced by stress corrosion of steel were observed in a section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract During the construction of a large-diam pipeline, several girth welds had to be cut out as a result of radiographic interpretation. The pipeline was constructed of 910 mm (36 in.) diam x 13 mm (0.5 in.) wall thickness grade X448 (x65) line pipe. The girth welds were fabricated using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Temperature, Pressure, and Average Chemical Composition of Gas Mixture Upstream of the Reaction Tower Table 1 Temperature, Pressure, and Average Chemical Composition of Gas Mixture Upstream of the Reaction Tower Temp, °C Pressure, kg/cm 2 Composition, vol.% HCl H 2 CH 4 C 2 H 6...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-in.) nominal wall thickness. The bellows were made by forming the convolution halves from stainless steel sheet, then welding the convolutions together (Detail B, Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Stainless steel pipeline for carrying hot nitrogen gas from heater to turbine that failed in the bellows section because...