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Fused salts

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...–3090) >2000 (>3630) 1800 (3270) Silicon carbide <1400 (<2550) 1500 (2730) 1200 (2190) 1600 (2910) NR, not recommended. Temperature limit not reached for “normal” durability Corrosion resistance of structural ceramics to fused salts, alkalis, and low-melting oxides Table...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... reaction within the tube) and then fractured, which allowed molten salt to flow into the tube. Chemical processing industry Chemical reactors Fused salts, environment Overheating Tubing St 35.8 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Background Visual of General Examination Physical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... proposed: modification of the processing parameters to reduce the salt deposition and / or change of bar materials to a more resistant alloy. Castings Fluxing Fused salts Hot gas corrosion Ironmaking Pelleting Sintering furnaces HH UNS J93503 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... with a thin film of fused salt in an oxidizing gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. This is known as high temperature or “hot” corrosion where a porous non-protective oxide scale is formed at the surfaces with sulfides in the substrate, and the mechanism of attack does not involve aqueous electrolytes [ 3...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of soluble salts containing certain specific anions can inhibit the crack-producing effect of a given environment on a given alloy. Certain aspects of the metallurgical structure of an alloy (such as grain size, crystal structure, and number of phases) influence the susceptibility of the alloy to SCC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... are the availability of sodium hydroxide or alkaline-producing salts and their mechanism of concentration. Sodium hydroxide is often intentionally added to boiler water at non-corrosive levels; it may also be introduced unintentionally. Since the sodium hydroxide and alkaline-producing salts are rarely present...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... resulted in perforation. Inspection revealed that in all cases pits had developed in line with the axis of those studs which had suffered the severest oxidation and wastage. This feature will be evident from Fig. 6 which shows the fused ends of the studs, the tube being sectioned transversely through...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... operation to the oil impregnation step, because the platers have found that the parts may not meet the commonly specified salt-spray-resistance requirements if they are detoured to a baking operation first. However, some platers have solved this problem. While zinc and iron phosphate are generally less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... due to an excessive time in the acid cleaning bath should be described as hydrogen embrittlement from the manufacturing process. However, evidence of hydrogen embrittlement due to corrosion of the assemblies that sat on a shipping dock unprotected from ice-melting salt may more correctly be described...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization and metal dusting, sulfidation, hot corrosion, chloridation, hydrogen interactions, molten metals, molten salts, and aging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...). After several hours, the drying agent became saturated and was taken off the line and regenerated by gas that was heated to 290 to 345 °C (550 to 650 °F) in a salt-bath heat exchanger. Figure 3(a) shows the arrangement of the 75-mm (3-in.) diam schedule 40 piping for the dehydrator system. After 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Anomalies such as porosity, voids, inclusions, and lack of braze filler metal (incomplete brazing) can be eliminated or minimized by implementing compatible cleaning operations before assembly and brazing. The use of fluxes or salts is also a contributor to producing flaws similar to those due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to join components of heat exchangers, produces metal in the joints that is not homogeneous. The weld consists of a dendritic structure (cast metal) and intermediate zones between fused metal and unaffected base metal. In some cases, the entire heat exchanger can be normalized or annealed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Fatigue Failure of a Steam Turbine Blade Fretting wear is a common gas turbine damage mechanism that involves repetitive micromotion between contacting surfaces. Asperities on the surfaces can fuse (microweld), break, and oxidize, producing a highly abrasive medium between the contacting surfaces...