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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... exfoliated from the base material and cracked. Recommendations included replacing the piping with a more corrosion-resistant material such as red brass (UNS C23000), inhibited Admiralty brass (UNS C44300), or arsenical aluminum brass (UNS C68700). Dezincification Fresh water Perforation Piping...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... is a complex phenomenon in which the activities of microorganisms can cause pitting, crevice corrosion, and dealloying of materials. MIC has been documented for metals exposed to seawater, fresh water, demineralized water, process chemicals, etc. [ 1 ]. The phenomenon commonly occurs in austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... conducted on a fresh oil sample as well as on a sample of used oil, which contained some of the refrigerant. The oil samples needed to be partially dried prior to introduction into the analysis chamber. Because of the high vacuum requirements, not all SEMs can be used for analyzing liquid specimens. The EDS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001372
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... conducive to stress-corrosion cracking is similar to failure caused by hydrogen damage; it is often difficult to distinguish between the two mechanisms. The environments that cause failure are not specific. Even an environment as mild as fresh water at room temperature may cause failure in especially...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... by the formation of fresh oxide by reaction of the metal with dissolved oxygen or with water molecules. The former—that is, the less energetic reaction—is prefered. In this case, microbiological activity had reduced dissolved oxygen, and the solid deposits restricted access of fresh dissolved oxygen. Hence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of uninhibited brass is frequently reported in salt or brackish water, the corrosion phenomenon has been associated with this specific condition, although failures in both fresh ( Ref 2 ) and potable ( Ref 1 , 3 ) water have also been reported. In the present case, the cooling water had a low chloride content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the bottom of the pipe, but the attack was localized corrosion not general corrosion. Furthermore, the galvanized coating was uniform in the un-corroded areas. Due to the stagnant conditions and lack of fresh water and oxygen, oxygen corrosion was rejected as the likely corrosion mechanism. MIC...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., the oxygen content increases, approaching the formula Fe 2 O 3 . During this process, the light orange-brown color of fresh rust darkens to a reddish, dark brown ( Fig. 2b-c ). The geological name for Fe 2 O 3 is hematite, and this is the most usual form in which iron is found in nature. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... it such that, although the Charles itself is fresh, salt water came in with the tide. Later, a dam was built downstream of the bridge preventing salt water from reaching this portion of the river. The water passing under the bridge is now fresh although anyone entertaining thoughts of swimming in it might take exception...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... of sulfide-containing sludge in coral formations near the condenser inlets. Consideration might also be given to relocation of the pump suction to an area where there is continuous entry of fresh seawater, which would reduce sulfide concentrations. Acknowledgments R.J. Franco wishes to acknowledge G.M...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... 1a ). Visual examination revealed that the filler metal had not covered all the mating surfaces and that the surface of the braze metal was not bright and shiny; no fresh fractures were visible. The surfaces of the joint were covered with what appeared to be residues of oxidation products from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the nickel anode. The presence of the electrolyte might have quenched the molten nickel, and the solidified globules might have been thrown onto fresh surfaces where they stuck, thus narrowing the gap between the electrodes. As such, the process of nickel anode decay became self-propagating. Evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... With regard to retubing, it was recommended that the units be cleaned and dried before storage or, alternatively, flushed with fresh inhibitor solutions known to provide adequate protection for the storage period and conditions anticipated. Attack would probably have been much less severe had the units been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...) shown seated at flanged end of section of pump housing The operating environment for the pump shaft was fresh water. The water was untreated, with the exception of a biocide used to control freshwater mussels and inhibit fouling of the water delivery and distribution system. The active ingredient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... carbonate (CaCO 3 ) precipitation is a common phenomenon found in environment such as marine water, fresh water, and soils [ 1 , 2 ]. It is a rather straight forward chemical process governed by four key factors: viz calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration, the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., adjacent to the “window” fracture, was broken open to expose a fresh fracture surface. The semi-quantitative results are listed in Table 2 . The results confirmed a significant sodium concentration on the fracture surface (6% Na). This finding is consistent with what would be expected with a sudden...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... racks were immersed in the basin at a depth of 3–6 feet below the surface of the water. After various exposure times, one row consisting of two coupons was withdrawn from the water and this row was replaced with two fresh coupons. The two nested coupons were photographed and analyzed in the laboratory...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and its supporting effect decreased, when a fresh system of creeping cracks started and developed again in stages, up to the line F, at which stage the crack was discovered and the lug broken off by hammering. The small dark patches G are rust spots. Fatigue failures of crankshafts usually occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... layer initially covers a steel surface. The development of microcracks and pores in the scale enables oxygen and water vapor to pass through the microcracks and pores, directly depositing onto the steel surface, forming oxidized Fe or fresh Cr. The penetration of oxidant gas into a void increases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to be the accumulation of sulfide-containing sludge in coral formations near the condenser inlets. Consideration might also be given to relocation of the pump suction to an area where there is continuous entry of fresh seawater, which would reduce sulfide concentrations. Crevice Corrosion in Water A common cause...