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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... On continued cooling to below freezing-point, water that entered the cavities solidified. This was accompanied by a slight increase in volume, which collapsed the pipe walls. In the examples, the pipe ends had not been properly tinned. The solder used was found to be of the tin-antimony type, containing about...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... to be a freeze-up of the tube side water that occurred during interruption of the tube side flow or misoperation of the unit. Air conditioning equipment Bursting Eddy current testing Excessive internal pressure Tubes Copper tube (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture An eddy current survey...
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 46 (a) Formation of shrinkage cavities for alloys that solidify by skin formation. (b) Formation of internal porosity for alloys that solidify over long freezing ranges. Source: Ref 38 . Courtesy of Copper Development Association Inc., McLean, VA More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
). (d) Slip traces in grain identified by the numeral 2 in (b). (e) Gas holes with dendritic freezing surfaces (double arrows, a). (f) Longitudinal section through identical screw with starting shearing damage. 10×. (g) Shearing crack (arrow, f). 130× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... identified by the numeral 1 in (b). (d) Slip traces in grain identified by the numeral 2 in (b). (e) Gas holes with dendritic freezing surfaces (double arrows, a). (f) Longitudinal section through identical screw with starting shearing damage. 10×. (g) Shearing crack (arrow, f). 130× In contrast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...) Normal water hammer: 100 kPa (15 psi) Air release valves: possibly closed due to freezing conditions Pertinent Specifications The water line was constructed of 1830 mm (72 in.) OD × 13 mm (0.500 in.) wall spiral-welded pipe using ASTM A283 grade D steel. Performance of Other Parts in Same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the fracture plane indicated that the crack originated in the thin-walled part. This crack propagation led to the conclusion that shrinkage stresses were the cause of the cracks, because the adjoining thick-and thin-walled cast parts freeze and shrink at different times. A differential shrinkage causes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Prevented Possible avenues for improvement include use of a premium-strength aluminum alloy, such as C-355 heat treated to the T6 condition. Strength and ductility in the critical bolt circle area would be optimized by the use of chills in the mold to maximize the freezing rate and to minimize the size...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001901
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... Gravimetric and thermal measurements of the new part revealed that, after six cycles, virtually no mass would be left and that the peak melting temperature (in dark green) or the peak freezing temperature (in light green) would decrease according to linear regression lines having probabilities of p<0.01...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the temperature of the cooling water is stated to be effective where anti-freeze additions based on ethylene glycol are employed. Attempts have been made to reduce or prevent cavitation damage by the application of cathodic protection, and this has been found to be effective in certain instances of trouble...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... pouring was completed. The cullet was allowed to melt, and then the melter was cooled to ambient temperature, freezing a glass puck in the bottom of the melter. The oxalate slurry was then charged on top of the glass puck and melt processing was re-initiated. During the subsequent melter cycle, glass...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to reach the interdendritic areas of the casting where shrinkage is occurring and where gas is being evolved. However, because this type of porosity occurs late in solidification, particularly in long-range freezing (mushy-freezing) alloys, it is particularly difficult to eliminate. The most effective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... generally form before solidification, while sulfides form during solidification. Manganese sulfide inclusions frequently form in the interdendritic regions and primary grain boundaries of steel, where the last of the liquid freezes. Depending on the alloy, oxides, sulfides, nitrides, or other...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (single arrow, a). (c) Shearing structures and dimples in grain identified by the numeral 1 in (b). (d) Slip traces in grain identified by the numeral 2 in (b). (e) Gas holes with dendritic freezing surfaces (double arrows, a). (f) Longitudinal section through identical screw with starting shearing damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and recorded to freeze the evidence at the failure scene: Position: fragments, equipment, parts, people (witnesses, people involved), controls, and photographs People: job descriptions, witnesses, accountabilities, information sources, experts, and those personnel that do not know Paper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... points, usually impurities or segregates located in grain boundaries, begin to melt. Liquid films then form around the grain boundaries, which freeze when the alloy is cooled. As the liquid freezes, it contracts and leaves an envelope of porosity around the grain boundaries. This degrades the mechanical...