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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Cracking (fracturing) Cylinders Foundry practice Porosity Class 30 Casting-related failures Door-closer cylinder castings manufactured of class 30 gray iron were breaking during machining. The manufacturing source reported that a random sampling of castings from this lot had hardnesses from 180...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of fractography and explains how it is used in failure analysis. It reviews the basic types of fracture processes, namely, ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep, principally in terms of fracture appearances, such as microstructure. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Fracture-mode identification chart Table 1 Fracture-mode identification chart Method Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive failure mode (b) Ductile overload Brittle overload Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) Necking or distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that induced SCC, with IG and transgranular modes shown Fig. 10 Photographs of a ruptured Inconel 600 steam generator tube. (a) Tube rupture. (b) SEM fractograph showing the IG fracture surface. (c) Micrograph showing the IG attack that extended from the OD surface Fig. 1 SEM images...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was deformed past its compressive yield. The section is viewed between cross polars, showing shear bands. 50× Fig. 9 Surface-microcracking network developed on polyoxymethylene due to ultraviolet exposure. 200× Fig. 27 Reflected-light optical micrograph of the fracture surface of medium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract A bolt breaks along a change in cross section well below its rated capacity. An anchoring screw spins freely in place, having snapped at its first supporting thread. A motor unexpectedly disengages its load, its driveshaft having fractured near a keyway. Such failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy images of (a) intergranular fracture in ion-nitrided layer of ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), (b) transgranular fracture by cleavage in ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), and (c) ductile fracture with equiaxed dimples from microvoid coalescence around graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures. Fig. 48 Artifacts generated by improper platinum sputter coating of a 4.6 mm (0.18 in.) diameter polycarbonate rotating beam fatigue specimen. This SEM view shows a pattern in the coating reminiscent of “mud-cracking.” Fig. 49...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract A ceiling in a concrete structure was hung on flat bars with a cross section of 30 x 80 mm. The bars were borne by a slit steel plate and supported by tabs that were welded onto the flat sides. One of the bars fractured during mounting when it was dropped from a height...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract A stainless tool steel bone drill broke during an operation on a patient and was examined. It showed two fatigue fractures, one of which had started from a sharp-edged, coarsely milled slot (fracture A1), and the other from a point on the outer sheath surface which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... a fracture transition temperature in excess of 1000C. The sequence of events leading to failure was detailed. The main recommendation was to quench and temper existing couplings and to use a lower carbon quenched and tempered steel for new couplings. Couplings Drilling rigs 4142 UNS G41420 Brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-alloyed steel with 39 kg/sq mm tensile strength, which had been strengthened by welding plate strips on both sides had fractured in service; an axle tube out of 40 Mn 4 after DIN 17 200 from a paper fabrication machine, which had three short longitudinal slits distributed uniformly over its surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke after three or four months of service. It was reportedly manufactured of the heat resistant steel 30 Cr-Mo-V 9 (Material No. 1.7707). The fracture of the chain link had a conchoidal structure and ran...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract The swivel head of a driving spindle of a four-high mill fractured. The fracture originated in a darkly stained spot on the bottom of the cylindrical part and then continued into the cylinder walls in the two directions. The fracture topography was of dendritic structure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
...Abstract Abstract The piston rod of a steering damper on a single decker bus fractured after 100,000 miles of service in the fully-extended left full-lock position. The steering damper, which is similar in shape and operation to a telescopic shock absorber, was secured by ball joints locked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... They were milled blades without binding wires and cover band. They did not fracture at the fastening, i.e. the location of highest bending stress, but in a central region which was 165 to 225 mm away from the gripped end. The blades were fabricated from a stainless heat-treatable chromium steel containing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract A steel valve spring meeting Steel-Iron-Test 1570 fractured during the high-stress condition of the operation of its valve. Metallographic examination of a transverse section adjacent to the fracture and a longitudinal section through the crack showed the steel was free...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An AISI 9260 steel railroad spike maul failed after a relatively short period of service. The maul head fractured in two pieces when struck against a rail. Visual, fractographic, metallographic, and chemical analyses were conducted on sections taken from the maul head, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures Fig. 2 Close-up view of ratchet marks between distinct surface origin sites in an 18.4 cm (7.25 in.) low-alloy steel shaft that failed in rotating-bending fatigue. Ratchet marks (at arrows) are roughly radial steps formed where fatigue...