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Fractures

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract An electric transport vehicle, similar to an electric trolley or subway rail car, experienced frequent breakdowns due to in-service fractures of torsion springs that support the weight of an overhead electric pickup assembly. Scanning electron microscopy and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract During construction of a river bridge with 80 twisted cables, one or more fractures were found in each of 21 wires of 18 cables before assembly. All were located at the outside wrapping whose Z-profile wires were galvanically zinc-coated. It was suspected that hydrogen played...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...Abstract Abstract A bolt breaks along a change in cross section well below its rated capacity. An anchoring screw spins freely in place, having snapped at its first supporting thread. A motor unexpectedly disengages its load, its driveshaft having fractured near a keyway. Such failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract The cross bars of conveyor belt links that served to transport glass containers through a stress relief furnace fractured in many cases. They consisted of wires of 5 mm diam made of low-carbon Siemens-Martin steel, while the interwoven longitudinal bars were made of strip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract A working roll of 210 mm diam and 500 mm face length was examined because of shell-shaped fractures. The roll consisted of Fe-0.83C-1.6Cr steel. The chromium content was low for a roll of this diam. The crack origin was located about 10 mm under the roil face. Surface hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Valve seats fractured during testing and during service. The seats were machined from grade 11L17 steel and were surface hardened by carburization. Investigation (visual inspection, hardness testing, 59x SEM images, and 2% nital etched 15x cross sections) supported...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract The conical helical spring sealed, within each switch enclosure, fractured to lead to the failure of several electrical toggle switches. The spring was fabricated from 0.43 mm diam AISI type 302 stainless steel wires. Appreciable amount of scale was observed on the fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
..., all of which propagated at an angle of approximately 45 deg to the longitudinal axis, and therefore were caused by torsion stresses. Neither macroscopic nor microscopic examination determined any material or processing faults. Experience has shown that torsion vibration fractures of this kind usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... cleaning procedures to remove any trace of the cleaning acids be used. Auger electron spectroscopy Contaminants Grain boundaries Rocket nozzles Scanning electron microscopy Nb-106 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture Since electron microscopy for the evaluation of fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Eight cylinderhead screws cracked after a short running time in motors. They were made of Fe-0.45C-1Cr steel, had rolled threads, were heat treated to 110 kg/sq mm tensile strength, and were electrolytically galvanized. All fractured at the root of the thread. The surfaces...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Sudden and unexplained bearing cap bolt fractures were experienced with reduced-shank design bolts fabricated from 42 CrMo 4 steel, quenched and tempered to a nominal hardness of 38 to 40 HRC. Fractographic analysis provided evidence favoring stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Galvanized A36 steel unsleeved shear-type anchor bolts failed during installation. The galvanized steel bolts were approximately 18 mm (0.7 in.) in diameter with a 90 deg bend between the long and short legs. As-fractured, sawcut, and unfractured specimens were examined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of fractography and explains how it is used in failure analysis. It reviews the basic types of fracture processes, namely, ductile, brittle, fatigue, and creep, principally in terms of fracture appearances, such as microstructure. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...Abstract Abstract Engineering component and structure failures manifest through many mechanisms but are most often associated with fracture in one or more forms. This article introduces the subject of fractography and aspects of how it is used in failure analysis. The basic types of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that induced SCC, with IG and transgranular modes shown Fig. 10 Photographs of a ruptured Inconel 600 steam generator tube. (a) Tube rupture. (b) SEM fractograph showing the IG fracture surface. (c) Micrograph showing the IG attack that extended from the OD surface Fig. 1 SEM images...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was deformed past its compressive yield. The section is viewed between cross polars, showing shear bands. 50× Fig. 9 Surface-microcracking network developed on polyoxymethylene due to ultraviolet exposure. 200× Fig. 27 Reflected-light optical micrograph of the fracture surface of medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy images of (a) intergranular fracture in ion-nitrided layer of ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), (b) transgranular fracture by cleavage in ductile iron (ASTM 80-55-06), and (c) ductile fracture with equiaxed dimples from microvoid coalescence around graphite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 1 General features of fatigue fractures. Fig. 48 Artifacts generated by improper platinum sputter coating of a 4.6 mm (0.18 in.) diameter polycarbonate rotating beam fatigue specimen. This SEM view shows a pattern in the coating reminiscent of “mud-cracking.” Fig. 49...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract A ceiling in a concrete structure was hung on flat bars with a cross section of 30 x 80 mm. The bars were borne by a slit steel plate and supported by tabs that were welded onto the flat sides. One of the bars fractured during mounting when it was dropped from a height...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract A stainless tool steel bone drill broke during an operation on a patient and was examined. It showed two fatigue fractures, one of which had started from a sharp-edged, coarsely milled slot (fracture A1), and the other from a point on the outer sheath surface which...