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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001557
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A number of machined end frame steel forgings made of Cr-Si-Mn alloy showed tiny cracks during magnetic particle inspection after heat treatment. The cracks were mostly confined to base edges and fillet radius. No significant abnormality was observed in chemical composition...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract The repeated occurrence of random cracks in the fillet radius portion of low-alloy steel (38KhA) end frame forgings following heat treatment was investigated. Microstructural analyses were carried out on both the failed part and disks of the rolled bar from which the part...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Two complete aircraft undercarriage-leg 2014 aluminum alloy forgings and a number of sectional ends that exhibited cracks during nondestructive testing were examined to determine the extent of damage and the type of cracking. Cracks were primarily confined to the diaphragm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Two outboard main-wheel halves (aluminum alloy 2014-T6 forged) from a commercial aircraft were removed from service because of failure. One wheel half was in service for 54 days and had made 130 landings (about 1046 roll km, or 650 roll mi) when crack indications were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to 4.75 mm (0.187 in.). Also, instead of the as-forged surface, it was expedient to machine the radius. The as-forged surface at 360 MPa (52 ksi) maximum working stress would not ensure satisfactory life because the recalculated maximum stress was 390 MPa (57 ksi). However, the machined surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0047151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract A motorboat engine connecting rod forged from carbon steel fractured in two places and cracked at the small end during service. The analysis (visual inspection, 50x micrographs of sections etched with 2% nital, magnetic-particle inspection, and metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract During a routine shear-pin check, the end lug on the barrel of the forward canopy actuator on a naval aircraft was found to have fractured. The lug was forged from aluminum alloy 2014-T6. Investigation (visual inspection, 2x views, and 140X micrographs etched with Keller's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0047158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... at the source, and the inspection of the finished product will help detect obscure seams. Cracking (fracturing) Forceps Forgings Seams Stainless steel Metalworking-related failures The pointed ends of several stainless steel forceps split or completely fractured where split portions broke off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Forged austenitic steel rings used on rotor shafts in two 100,000 kW generators burst from overstressing in a region of ventilation holes. A variety of causes contributed to the brittle fractures in the ductile austenitic alloy, including stress concentration by holes, work...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0059932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
...Abstract Abstract Field failures, traced to internal cracks that were initiated from gross nonmetallics, were encountered in the upset portion of forged 4118 steel shafts. Ultrasonic inspection was thought to be the best method for detection from the location of these cracks, their orientation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A ring clamp (8740 (AMS 6322), steel forged and cadmium plated) used for attaching ducts to an aircraft engine became loose after three hours of service. When the clamp was removed from the engine, the hinge tabs on one clamp half were found to be broken. Analysis (visual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... working of wrought products. The article addresses the types of flaws or defects that can be introduced during the steel forging process itself, including defects originating in the ingot-casting process. Defects found in nonferrous forgings—titanium, aluminum, and copper and copper alloys—also...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A cross-recessed die of D5 tool steel fractured in service. The die face was found to be subjected to shear and tensile stresses as a result of the forging pressures from the material being worked. The presence of numerous slag stringers was revealed by microscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... into the folds during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that even through there was some indication of chemical segregation, the folds made during forging initiated the main crack. Furthermore, even if the steel had been more homogeneous, hardening cracks would probably have been promoted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Carbon steel axle forgings were rejected due to internal cracks observed during final machining. To determine the cause of the cracks, the preforms of the forging were analyzed in detail at each stage of the forging. The analysis revealed a large central burst...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract A stepped drive axle (hardened and tempered resulfurized 4150 steel forging) used in a high-speed electric overhead crane (rated at 6800 kg, or 7 tons, and handling about 220 lifts/day with each lift averaging 3625 to 5440 kg, or 4 to 6 tons) broke after 15 months of service...