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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0047151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract A motorboat engine connecting rod forged from carbon steel fractured in two places and cracked at the small end during service. The analysis (visual inspection, 50x micrographs of sections etched with 2% nital, magnetic-particle inspection, and metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract Two outboard main-wheel halves (aluminum alloy 2014-T6 forged) from a commercial aircraft were removed from service because of failure. One wheel half was in service for 54 days and had made 130 landings (about 1046 roll km, or 650 roll mi) when crack indications were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A ring clamp (8740 (AMS 6322), steel forged and cadmium plated) used for attaching ducts to an aircraft engine became loose after three hours of service. When the clamp was removed from the engine, the hinge tabs on one clamp half were found to be broken. Analysis (visual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Carbon steel axle forgings were rejected due to internal cracks observed during final machining. To determine the cause of the cracks, the preforms of the forging were analyzed in detail at each stage of the forging. The analysis revealed a large central burst...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract To forged AISI 4140 steel trailer kingpins fractured after 4 to 6 months of service. Fractographic and metallographic examination revealed that cracks were present in the spool-flange shoulder region of the defective kingpins prior to installation on the trailers. The cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... HB, revealed that fatigue crack initiation occurred from the tip of oxide scale inclusions forged into the U-shaped arm at the inside radius. Corrective action involved redesigning the steering arm to increase the minimum forging radius and reduce the stress level at the inner-bend radius...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0089456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
...Abstract Abstract A cross-recessed die of D5 tool steel fractured in service. The die face was found to be subjected to shear and tensile stresses as a result of the forging pressures from the material being worked. The presence of numerous slag stringers was revealed by microscopic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0047154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... into the folds during forging. This evidence supported the conclusion that even through there was some indication of chemical segregation, the folds made during forging initiated the main crack. Furthermore, even if the steel had been more homogeneous, hardening cracks would probably have been promoted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0047158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... at the source, and the inspection of the finished product will help detect obscure seams. Cracking (fracturing) Forceps Forgings Seams Stainless steel Metalworking-related failures The pointed ends of several stainless steel forceps split or completely fractured where split portions broke off...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract During the preproduction stages of forging, an initial batch of 50 mm (2 in.) diam Al-4Cu alloy (L77) extruded bar stock material was found to be cracking randomly. Failure analysis was conducted to determine the metallurgical factors underlying the phenomenon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the jaw. It was concluded that the failures stemmed from forging laps in the jaw that broaching failed to remove. open end wrench fracture forging laps chromium steel fracture scanning electron microscopy surface morphology chromium manganese steel (low alloy chromium steel, general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A forging die in a 250-ton press producing brass valves began to show signs of fatigue after a few thousand hits. By the time it reached 30,000 hits, the die was badly damaged and was submitted for analysis along with one of the last forgings produced. The investigation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... to 4.75 mm (0.187 in.). Also, instead of the as-forged surface, it was expedient to machine the radius. The as-forged surface at 360 MPa (52 ksi) maximum working stress would not ensure satisfactory life because the recalculated maximum stress was 390 MPa (57 ksi). However, the machined surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A forging of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy, which formed a support for the cylinder of a cargo door, cracked at an attachment hole. Fluorescent penetrant inspection showed the crack ran above and below the hole out onto the machined flat surface of the flange. A 6500x electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... perpendicular and parallel to the long axis of the forging. Metallography revealed the tempered martensite structure normally obtained in this steel after proper quenching and tempering. Figure 1(c) shows the fracture profile parallel to the longitudinal axis of the component. This edge, which is adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A connecting rod (forged from 15B41 steel and heat treated to a hardness of 29 to 35 HRC) from a truck engine failed after 73,000 Km (45,300 mi) of service. A piece of the I-beam sidewall of the rod, about 6.4 cm (2 in.) long, was missing when the connecting rod arrived...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Discussion Metallographic Examination Liquid-Penetrant Examination Low-Magnification Examination of the Fracture Surfaces Preliminary Examination Fig. 1 Connecting end of forged rod, with banded structure from excessive segregation in the billet (Example 2). (a) Rod end showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract An octagonal steel ingot weighing 13 tons made of manganese-molybdenum steel developed gaping cross-cracks on all eight sides in the forging press during initial pressure application. It was reported that the steel had been melted in a basic 12-ton arc furnace, oxygenated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract An investigation was conducted to determine the factors responsible for the occasional formation of cracks on the parting lines of medium plain carbon and low-alloy medium-carbon steel forgings. The cracks were present on as-forged parts and grew during heat treatment...