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Fluid flow

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... A as the heat transfer fluid. Design conditions are based on annular fluid flow to cool the coil wall. NDE, metallographic and fractographic examinations were performed. Numerous, circumferentially oriented, OD initiating cracks were found near the crown for two coils near the non-fired end of the vaporizer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the allowable operating temperature for the fluid. The probable cause for failure is thermal fatigue due to the localized overheating. Flow conditions inside the tubing should be reexamined to ensure suitable conditions for annular fluid flow. Cracking (fracturing) Heat exchangers Mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... with the classic spongy appearance of cavitation. Two changes were proposed: streamlining the part to avoid abrupt changes in fluid flow; and a change in alloy to a more corrosion-resistant material (304 or preferably 316) to increase the tenacity of protective films. Cavitation Design Supports 8620...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0045992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract After two weeks of operation, a poppet used in a check valve to control fluid flow and with a maximum operating pressure of 24 MPa (3.5 ksi) failed during operation. Specifications required that the part be made of 1213 or 1215 rephosphorized and resulfurized steel. The poppet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0051866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... fluids or modifying the fluids in the tubing or purging by flowing dry nitrogen to dry it out. Coiled steel Drilling Pitting (corrosion) Tubes Structural steel tubing Corrosion fatigue Coiled tubing is used in drilling operations because it eliminates the need for a drilling rig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... that the proximate cause of failure was cavitation and vortexing between the rotor and the lining. The root cause of the failure was the conversion from lime to limestone slurry without appropriate modification of the pump. Conversion to the limestone slurry resulted in fluid dynamics outside the operational limits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-355 poppet susceptible to intergranular corrosive attack (IGA) from a decontaminant containing hydroxy-acetic acid. This attack provided pathways for which fluid could leak across the sealing surface in the closed condition. It was concluded that the current design is flight worthy if the poppet valve...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0048350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of supporting the tubes was changed to reduce the amount of restraint and the strain concentration. Constraining Fluid flow Strain Supports Carbon-molybdenum steel Fatigue fracture Tubes in a marine boiler on a new ship failed after brief service lives. Circumferential brittle cracking occurred...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or condenser tubing, it is usually confined to a short distance on the inlet end of the tube where the fluid flow is turbulent. Impingement attack can be controlled by use of corrosion-resistant alloys, such as copper alloy C71500 (copper nickel, 30%). Impingement attack also has been somewhat relieved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the fluid flow is turbulent. Impingement attack can be controlled by use of corrosion-resistant alloys, such as copper alloy C71500 (copper nickel, 30%). Impingement attack has been somewhat relieved by inserting relatively short tapered plastic or alloy sleeves inside the tube on the inlet end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., low-temperature steam piping, and condenser and other heat-exchanger tubes that are subjected to direct impingement by wet steam. Liquid impingement erosion in tubing and piping is most likely when fluid velocities exceed 2.1 m/s (7 ft/s). Damage occurs first at locations where direction of flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... solidification cracks. The occurrence of fusion-zone solidification cracks in the weld between the diffuser cone and the type 310 stainless steel intake diffuser flange suggested that local variations in welding conditions probably produced sluggish fluid flow and promoted the occurrence of a weld metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will pass through the oil film and cause erosion. The bearing surfaces will not be reflective, but will appear frosted ( Fig. 5 ). In certain areas of fluid flow along a solid boundary, high pressures and low pressures can develop. If the negative pressure is high, cavities can form in the fluid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... are subjected to high-pressure differentials across the intake and exit, high fluid velocities, and fluids that may cause erosion or corrosion. Flow-induced vibration is a significant loading mechanism. The reliability of pump impellers used in power and process facilities is important to prevent costly plant...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... to the outer covering may allow water ingress to the wire spirals and result in corrosion. Crushing or kinks may result in damage to the inner hose, debonding between the layers of the hose, and/or restriction of the hydraulic fluid flow therefore locally altering the operating pressures. The problems...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... surface is a second convective heat-transfer mode. The steam-side heat-transfer coefficient is a function of fluid velocity, viscosity, density, and tube bore diameter. Boilers in service for some time have a fourth component to the heat-flow path: internal scale or deposits. Steam reacts with steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in Overheating Restriction of Fluid Flow as a Cause of Overheating Fireside and Waterside Deposits as a Cause of Overheating Thick-Lip Ruptures Case Study: Rupture of a Carbon Steel Water-Wall Tube because of Prolonged Overheating Thin-Lip Ruptures Case Study: Short-Term Overheating-Related...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are similarly additive. Other significant sources of cyclic stresses are fans or pumps, which generate high-frequency vibrations in coolant circuits; turbulent fluid flow through or over tubes, such as steam flow over condenser tubes; and such upsets as water hammer in steam-generating equipment (see...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in the inner hose, creating leaks; allow water ingress to the wires; and alter the flow of hydraulic fluid and the pressure of the oil within the hose. Fig. 2 A cross section of one of the crushed areas of the failed hoist lift hose The hoist return hose was in much better condition...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the Suction Stage of High-Energy Pumps , World Pumps , Vol 348 , 1995 , p 10 – 48 28. Chan W.K. , Correlation between Cavitation Type and Cavitation Erosion in Centrifugal Pumps , Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow , Vol 11 ( No. 3 ), 1990 , p 269 – 271 29. Hunt J.B. , Ryde-Weller...