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Flame hardening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001212
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Operation handles produced from C45 steel showed many fine cracks at the flame hardened noses. In Fig. 1 the hardened zone of one of the samples has been made visible by an etch using 10% nital. The cracks run from the corners of the marked indentations caused by the tool during alignment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...Abstract Abstract Deformation, surface cracking, and spalling on the raceway of the outer ring (made of 4140 steel) of a large bearing caused it to be replaced from a radar antenna. The raceway surfaces were to be flame hardened to 55 HRC minimum and 50 HRC 3.2 mm below the surface, according...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to exist in this particular rail from fit-up distortion, flame-hardening treatment, and weld repairs. Circumstances Leading to Failure The first crack in the rail appeared immediately following installation and heat treatment. The rail flange separated with a loud report; no load had yet been...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
...Abstract Abstract A section from a stop-block guide fell to the floor on a crane runway after it failed. A brittle crystalline-type break was disclosed by examination of the fracture surface. The point of initiation was in a hardened heat-affected layer that had developed during flame cutting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... and its presence in this instance is due to the fact that, during the flame-cutting operation a narrow band of material on each side of the cut was raised above the hardening temperature and when the torch had passed, the rate of abstraction of heat from this zone by conduction into the cold mass...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... hooks were flame cut from ASTM A242 fine-grain steel plate, ground to remove the material damaged by flame cutting and stress relieved at 620 deg C. Cranes Flame cutting Hooks Martensite Normalizing (heat treatment) 1040 UNS G10400 Fatigue fracture A 10,890-kg (12-ton) coil hook failed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0047406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... alternative to 1045 steel. The pinion was annealed before flame or induction hardening of the teeth to a surface hardness of 363 HRB and a core hardness of 197 HRB. The broken pinion had a tooth which had failed by fatigue fracture through the tooth root because of the low strength from incomplete surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... They could have conceivably arisen as a result of accidental heating by the flame of the brazing torch. If the temperature had been raised locally to above the lower critical — 730°C the region would harden subsequently due to the rapid cooling which would occur when the flame was removed. The cracks which...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001723
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... to length, and the resulting work-hardening of the material had led to strain-age-embrittlement, possibly as a result of the heating imparted by the operation of flame-cutting the slot. Tests showed that the steel was susceptible to this phenomenon. The material was a rimming steel and although the core...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... than 12% Cr steel. All of the commonly used blade alloys are protected from liquid-droplet impingement in the last blade row by local hardening (by flame or induction heating), brazed-on shields of Stellite 6B, or welded-on hard facing. Helicopter rotors are made of titanium sheet laid over...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... remelting (ESR) or vacuum arc remelting (VAR). However, steel from these secondary refining processes is still required for bearings in high-reliability applications, such as aircraft engines. The bearing industry has used through-hardened material, such as 52100, for ball bearings since early...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... conditions where the fire tube sleeve was under continuous operations and fully exposed to gas fired flame at atmospheric pressure. Heater Treater contains two fire tubes having inner sleeves. To identify the mechanism of failure, detailed laboratory and analytical investigations were carried out...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is a limiting factor, plain carbon steels may not be suitable. A high-strength low-alloy steel can be used instead, the grade and fabrication depending on the requirements of the specific application. Flame-cut parts and welded components, insofar as possible, should be stress relieved at 600 to 650 °C...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... was lying flat on the ground near the seacoast under normal weather conditions. It was flame cut into two sections, as required for construction, and approximately 1 2 h after cutting, a violent sound was heard. The shorter section of the cut beam had split catastrophically into two portions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001722
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... not exceeding 65 t.p.s.i., or have been nitrided, no further heat treatment is normally required before plating. In the case of parts made from steel hardened and tempered to a tensile range exceeding 65 t.p.s.i., or which have been carburised, flame-or induction-hardened, or carbonitrided, it is preferable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... alloy in the surface layer of oxide scale. Beneath this layer a hardened region showing martensite needles in a matrix of austenite was evident, the structure changing through “troostitic constituents” to the overheated material of the wheel. Structural changes of a similar nature occurred at the flame...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...) into an Al alloy casing. Failure of the scavenge pump causes the main shaft bearings to be overlubricated because the oil is no longer drained from those compartments. Flames and smoke from the engine tailpipe (when oil gets to the hot gas flow) is the latest step of the occurred failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 5160H alloy steel spring. (a) Nickel plating on top of scale on an as-rolled specimen. (b) Partial decarburization at the surface of a hardened specimen. (c) Free ferrite and partial decarburization at the surface of a hardened specimen. Etched with 2% nital Fig. 21 Light micrograph showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of skeletal carbides, similar in appearance to an as-cast condition. Figure 33 shows the microstructure of an AISI D2 tool steel powder metallurgy die that was deformed at one end after heat treatment. Light microscopy revealed that the steel was locally melted in this region, apparently due to flame...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that enhances cross slip or twinning, or that increases the rate of work hardening will retard crack nucleation. On the other hand, alloying usually raises the flow stress of a metal, which speeds up crack propagation, thus at least partly offsetting the potentially beneficial effect on fatigue-crack nucleation...