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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The carbon steel feedwater piping at a waste-to-energy plant was suffering from wall thinning and leaking after being in service for approximately six years. Metallographic examination of ring sections removed front the piping revealed a normal microstructure consisting of pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0091291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract Carbon steel tubes from a boiler feedwater heater feeding a deaerator were treated to control scale formation, but the treatment instead produced more iron oxide. The additional iron oxide reduced the tubing to a totally corroded condition. Investigation showed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... International , 2002 , p 761 – 795 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548 A 460 mm (18 in.) diam suction line to the main feedwater pump for a nuclear power plant failed in a catastrophic manner. The failure was so violent that large section ofpipe was found in a cable tray more than 15 m (50 ft) from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract Material samples collected from failed booster pumps were analyzed to determine the cause of failure and assess the adequacy of the materials used in the design. The pumps had been in service at a power plant, transporting feedwater from a deaerator to a main turbine boiler...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of a severe caustic upset in the boiler feedwater system. Tests performed on a longitudinal weld joint, which connected two adjacent tubes in the tertiary superheater bank, confirmed caustic-induced stress-corrosion cracking, promoted by the presence of residual welding stresses. Improved maintenance of check...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by corrosion deposits at their tips. The failure suggests control of dissolved solids in the boiler feedwater may have been inadequate. Boilers Corrosion products Superheater headers 2.25Cr-1Mo Thermal fatigue fracture Corrosion fatigue Examination of the header of the third superheater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was revealed by EDS analysis of the debris to be iron with traces of phosphorus, manganese, sodium, calcium, copper, zinc, potassium, silicon, chromium, and molybdenum. Thus the debris was interpreted to be the scale from ID of the tube with boiler feedwater chemicals from the attemperation spray. The likely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... or other hot component. In this particular case, control of dissolved solids in the boiler feedwater may have been inadequate. Steam collectors Superheaters Carbon steel Pitting corrosion Stress-corrosion cracking Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the outlet from a superheater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... on the disc surfaces and within the turbine blade attachment area. It was recommended that the potential for water carryover or feedwater induction into the turbine be addressed via an engineering evaluation of the plant's water treatment procedures, steam separation equipment, and start-up procedures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) as-polished 100× Fig. 8 Tube-to-header weld, axial section (from Fig. 7 at arrow δ): (a) as-polished, 500×; (b) as-polished 1000× Fig. 1 Heat-recovery steam generator Fig. 2 Feedwater economizer, finned tube harp assembly Fig. 3 Fe-Cr alloy phase diagram 15...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0047615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... in the feedwater. Penetrant testing revealed numerous longitudinal cracks on the inside in the area of the fin tip. Cracking at the end of the fin-to-tube fillet weld was noted. The results indicate the failures were due to corrosion fatigue whose stresses were primarily thermally induced. A temporary solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fractures where the part is loaded randomly, intermittently, or with periodic variations in mean stress or alternating stress”. Both of the fractures examined displayed beach marks. Similar cracking had been observed previously on feedwater pipes at various nuclear power plants. The location...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to form iron oxide: (Eq 1) 4 H 2 O + 3 Fe → 3 Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 Furnace walls may also have other deposits from impurities in the boiler feedwater. Because these deposits and scale have a lower thermal conductivity than the steel tube, the net effect is an increase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... surface ( Fig. 1b ). The branched, transgranular cracks in the flange-to-cone weld and in the base metal of the cone were characteristic of chloride stress-corrosion cracks in type 316 stainless steel. There were two possible sources of chlorides: boiler feedwater and insulation. The boiler feedwater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Properties Steam generators have a history of thermal fatigue failures, such as cracking of feedwater nozzles. These nozzle cracks exhibit crack arrests and beach marks, which suggests that their propagation was discontinuous in nature and was caused by a cyclic stress mode. In fact, the failure mode...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Failed aluminum brass condenser tube from a saltwater heat exchanger. The tube failed from pitting caused by hydrogen sulfide and chlorides in the feedwater. (a) Cross section of tube showing deep pits and excessive metal wastage. 2 3 4 ×. (b) Higher magnification view of a pit showing the depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... by the corrosive boiler feedwater. The fracture surfaces of the 16-mm ( 5 8 -in.) diam bolts exhibited stained brittle-fracture features in starlike patterns. Examination of bolts in all three lots also disclosed a copper-colored residue adhering to the threads. This residue was from the antiseizure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... hydroxide in the feedwater Cell voltage 2.5 to 3.5 V dc Current 5000 A Temperature Electrolyte side: 50 °C (120 °F) Cooling water side: 45 °C (110 °F) Several specimens from the damaged portion of the nickel anode were collected for examination. A sufficient quantity of the black...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... could have been a sand residue from the impeller casting process. The other deposit constituents could have come from the feedwater. The chlorine (chloride) increases the pitting potential within the pre-existing shrinkage cavities. The copper and nickel are possible indicators of corrosion in water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of construction for pump impellers. Cast martensitic stainless steels have excellent corrosion resistance in a feedwater environment, and because of their higher hardness, they provide improved erosion resistance. Several grades of cast stainless steels are available: CA6NM, CA-15, and CA-40. CA-6NM has the best...