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Fe-C system

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... mm in. 1 10 36.9 FeS 1.08 FeS 1.1 0.5 0.02 1 and 2 (composite) … 41.7 FeS 1.15 FeS 1.1 + FeS 1.2 … … 2 … … … FeS 1.2 (c) 2.0 0.08 2 and 3 (composite) 6 45.0 FeS 1.46 FeS 1.2 + FeS 2 … … 3 … … … FeS 1.2 + FeS 2 (c) 2.0 0.08 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... (discussed below). Typical chemical compositions of alloys tested Table 1 Typical chemical compositions of alloys tested Alloy Composition, % C Mn Fe Si Cu Ni Cr Al Ti Mo Others 304 0.08 (a) 2.0 (a) Bal 1.0 (a) … 10.0 19.0 … … … … 309 0.08 (a) 2.0 (a) Bal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... these two cast parts had channels molded in them through which cooling water passed, so that only the outside was subjected to high temperatures. Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the burner nozzle configuration. The top casting was made of a Co-Cr-Fe alloy (typically (wt. %) 29 Cr, 19 Fe, 0.02 C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for tube metal temperature was 667 °C, a value considerably higher than the safe operating limit (580 °C). The Fe 3 O 4 oxide and T12 exhibited thermal conductivity values of 0.592 and 34.6 W/m °C, respectively [ 15 ]. The increasing oxide scale thickness significantly reduced the thermal conductivity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... boiler and superheater tubes results from the so-called “steam-iron reaction,” 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O = Fe 3 O 4 + 4 H 2 which becomes significant at metal temperatures of the order of 600°C. The scale found externally is due to high temperature oxidation. In these instances...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... at four weld locations, identified as A, B, C, and D in Fig. 1 . The welded system consisted of Incoloy 800 (Fe-32Ni-21Cr-0.05C) pipe and fittings. The exterior surfaces of the system were insulated with rock wool that did not contain weatherproofing. On-site visual examination and magnetic testing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentrations (at.%). 1.5 nm sputter removed Table 3 Auger electron spectroscopy atomic concentrations (at.%). 1.5 nm sputter removed Sample C O Na S Ca Cr Fe Ni Point 1, large defect 13.1 30.2 3.5 nd 38.0 3.4 10.0 1.9 Point 2, small defect 8.6 35.2 5.6 0.5 nd 9.7 37.9...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects can cause metallurgical changes that alter the mechanical and corrosion properties of materials. Graphitization is a microstructural change that can occur in carbon and low-alloy steels. Pearlite (alternating ferrite and Fe 3 C platelet structure) normally found in such steels transforms in time...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... 3 -Cr 2 O 3 ternary phase diagram at 1650 °C was used to present the data on the (Fe, M)O-Al 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 system; here, M = Mn or Mg ( Figure 5 ). Fig. 5 (a) Isothermal section of FeO-Al 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 ternary phase diagram at 1650 °C and (b) (Fe, M)O-(Cr, Al) 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... used in supercritical, ultra-supercritical, and advanced ultra-supercritical power plants Grade designation C Si Mn Cr Ni Mo W Nb Fe Others Remarks SAVE 12 0.1 0.3 0.2 11.0 … … 3.0 0.07 bal 0.2V, 3.0Co, 0.07Ta, 0.04Nd, 0.04N Proprietary grade...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... it to be primarily Fe 3 O 4 plus Fe 2 O 3 . No other elements were found, except in trace amounts. It is thus unlikely that the sealing compound introduced into the system contributed to the failure. Chemical composition of scale Table 2 Chemical composition of scale Element Composition, % Iron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Nitrite in a Produced Water System , Proceedings of the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry , April 20–22, 2009 ( The Woodlands, TX ), Society of Petroleum Engineers , 2009 , p 292 – 299 , 10.2118/121463-MS 71. Hubert C. , Nemati M. , Jenneman G. , and Voordouw...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... portion of a failed breech chamber is shown in Figure 1 . The interior surface has been heavily oxidized and pitted. The breech chambers are constructed from AISI 4340 steel heat treated to a specified hardness value of Rockwell C 40–45. Metallurgical failure analyses on several failed breech chambers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is open to the atmosphere. (b) Structural members should be designed to avoid retention of liquids; L-shaped sections should be used with the open side down, and exposed seams should be avoided. (c) Incorrect trimming or poor design of seals and gaskets can create crevice sites. (d) Drain valves should...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ), but the corrosion rate observed depends on the concentration of FeS involved ( Fig. 5 ). Consistent with the importance of this corrosion process in industrial facilities, commercial test kits have been developed for enumerating or assessing the activity of SRB in operating systems ( Ref 25 ). Fig. 5 Rate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... will be given later to support the postulate that these voids are formed because of the formation of methane, not because of the large amount of hydrogen per se . The methane is formed by the reaction Fe 3 C + 2 H 2 → CH 4 + 3 Fe which is sometimes referred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...% C 0.4 to 0.6 Mn 16.0 to 20.0 Cr 3.5 to 6.0 Ni 2.5 max Si 0.2 to 0.65. P 0.08 max S 0.025 max Fe rem Several thousand 18 Mn-5Cr rings in service in the United States. No previously reported ring failures of this alloy are reported, though approximately a dozen...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 36.9 FeS 1.08 FeS 1.1 0.5 0.02 1 and 2 (composite) … 41.7 FeS 1.15 FeS 1.1 + FeS 1.2 … … 2 … … … FeS 1.2 (c) 2.0 0.08 2 and 3 (composite) 6 45.0 FeS 1.46 FeS 1.2 + FeS 2 … … 3 … … … FeS 1.2 + FeS 2 (c) 2.0 0.08 4 … … … FeS 2 (c) (d) (d...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., uniform scale, with a thermal conductivity of 14.4 W/m · K (10 Btu · in./h · ft 2 · °F) on tubes in the film-boiling region of a 690-kPa (100-psi) system (saturation temperature 285 °C, or 545 °F). Many boilers are designed so that heat transfer at the boiling surface is controlled by fluid-film...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... C. , Kodama H. , Proc. Conf. Comput. Eng. Sci. 14 ( 1 ), 103 – 104 ( 2009 ) 11. Sandhu S. , Millard M. , McPhee J. , Brekke D. , Procedia Eng. 2 ( 2 ), 3243 – 3248 ( 2010 ) 10.1016/j.proeng.2010.04.139 12. Tanaka K. , Teranishi Y...