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Fatigue fracture

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failure of engineering components and structures results from progressive fracture caused by cyclic or fluctuating loads. Fatigue is an important potential cause of mechanical failure, because most engineering components or structures are or can be subjected to cyclic loads...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of TMF life prediction. Additional information on TMF and TMF testing is contained in Ref 24 and 25 , respectively. Fatigue case studies, in which practical systems are analyzed from a fracture mechanics perspective, are also presented in Ref 26 . The primary dominant damage mechanisms...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0046155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract A structure had been undergoing fatigue testing for several months when a post-like member heat treated to a tensile strength of 1517 to 1655 MPa (220 to 240 ksi) ruptured. The fracture occurred in the fillet of the post that contacted the edge of a carry-through box bolted to the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... one-piece forging and circulation of atmosphere during heat treatment was permitted through a hole drilled in the flange end of the rod to avoid decarburization. Friction Welding Holes Roughness Stress concentration 8620 UNS G86200 Fatigue fracture Heat treating-related failures Joining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Plunger shafts machined from 4150 steel bar stock were involved in a series of fatigue failures. The fractures consistently occurred at two locations on the shafts: the shaft fillet and either side of a machined notch. The material specification for the shafts required 41xx series...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...-related failures Fatigue fracture The liners for bellows-type expansion joints in a duct assembly ( Fig. 1a ) failed in service. The duct assembly, used in a low-pressure nitrogen gas system, consisted of two expansion joints (bellows) connected by a 32 cm (12 in.) outside diameter (OD) pipe of ASTM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and flange and more skillful welding techniques to avoid undercutting and unfused interfaces. Arc welding Combustion chamber Flanges Gas turbine engines Pipe fitting Undercuts Welding defects Inconel 718 (Nickel-base superalloy) UNS N07718 Fatigue fracture Joining-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0047813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... fatigue. (Left) Section through pulverizer showing the inner main shaft that fractured, repaired itself by friction welding, and fractured a second time. (Right) Photograph of the friction welded surface The lower grinding ring of the pulverizer was attached to the outer main shaft ( Fig. 1 , left...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0046160
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... shifting during operation. Axles Cranes Forgings Torsional fatigue 4150 UNS G41500 Fatigue fracture A stepped drive axle used in a high-speed electric overhead crane broke after 15 months of service. The axle ( Fig. 1a ) was made from a hardened-and-tempered resulfurized 4150 steel forging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... which indicated that the material was in the as-forged condition (which meant lower fatigue strength). The fracture was concluded to have occurred due to stress concentration in the root of the last thread. Normalizing of the crane hook after forging was suggested as a corrective measure. A stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... radius of the hook. Beach marks (typical of fatigue fracture) were found extending over approximately 20% of the fracture surface. Numerous cracks were revealed by macroscopic examination of the torch-cut surfaces. It was revealed by macrograph of an etched specimen that the cracks had initiated in a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... Abstract A bridge wheel from a 272,160 kg stripper crane fractured in the web near the rim after one year of service. The wheel was forged from 1055 steel, and the tread, hub faces, and hub bore were machined. Beach marks indicative of fatigue at ten locations were revealed by macroscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... confirmed failure of the shaft by fatigue fracture. As a corrective measure the shaft was replaced with one made of 4140 steel, quenched and tempered to a hardness of 286 to 319 HRB. The keyway was moved away from the change in section and was machined with a 1.6-mm radius in the bottom corners and a larger...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... wire rope was substituted by the more abrasion resistant 6 x 19 rope. Carbon Chemical composition Cranes Martensite Specifications Tensile Strength Fe-0.73C Fatigue fracture The wire rope on a crane in a scrapyard broke after 2 weeks of service under normal loading conditions. Expected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0089633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... castings Stress concentraion Stuffing box 60-45-10 Casting-related failures Fatigue fracture The stuffing box shown in Fig. 1(a) was sand cast from ASTM A 536, grade 60-45-10, ductile iron and began leaking water after two weeks of service. The machine was operating at 326 rpm, with discharge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... fracture is proceeded by local gliding and the development of cracks along lattice planes favorably orientated with respect to the principal stress. This non-reversible process is often misleadingly called “fatigue” and presents significant challenges to engineering teams that ill-advisedly take to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... two locations approximately 180 deg apart on the outer surface of the shaft and propagated toward the center. Features typical of reversed-bending fatigue were exhibited by the fracture. A tensile specimen was machined from the center of the shaft and it indicated much lower yield strength (369 MPa...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... initiated the fatigue failure by acting as stress raisers. The welding method was changed by the manufacturer and all chains were replaced with defect free chains. Cranes Resistance welding Stress concentration 4615 UNS G46150 Joining-related failures Fatigue fracture A resistance-welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0047234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... fracture-initiation area showed fatigue striations. No casting or metallurgical structural defects were found that could explain the failures. This evidence supports the conclusion that cracking was a result of the stress-concentration site at the bolt holes where a fatigue-initiated fracture occurred...