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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract During the preproduction stages of forging, an initial batch of 50 mm (2 in.) diam Al-4Cu alloy (L77) extruded bar stock material was found to be cracking randomly. Failure analysis was conducted to determine the metallurgical factors underlying the phenomenon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... was recommended for the replacement unit to lessen the possibility of such gross inclusion segregation and to improve the fracture toughness of the cylinder. Casing (material) Extruders Nonmetallic inclusions Xray analysis ASTM A235-55 Corrosion fatigue The energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... surface-hardening treatment be used. The provision of a stop to reduce bending stresses was also recommended. Extruders Shafts (power) UNS G10220 1022 EN3 Fatigue fracture Background A piston shaft on the billet-loading tray of an extrusion press experienced recurring failure. The shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Several air heat exchangers failed in service in a pulp and paper operation. The tubes were made from AISI 316 stainless steel with an extruded aluminum fin mechanically bonded to the outside. Originally, the failures were blamed on poor tube to header welds. The units were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0090436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the brittle couplings contained a significant level of contamination, polypropylene and nylon 6/6. The source of the polypropylene was likely the purging compound used to clean the compounding extruder. The origin of the nylon 6/6 resin was unknown but may represent a previously compounded resin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0092122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract Several 6063-T6 aluminum alloy extension ladders of the same size and type collapsed in service in the same manner; the extruded aluminum alloy 6063-T6 side rails buckled, but the rungs and hardware remained firmly in place. The ladders had a maximum extended length of 6.4 m...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A section of pipe in a hydrocarbon pipeline was found to be leaking. The pipeline was installed several decades earlier and was protected by an external coating of extruded polyethylene and a cathodic protection system. The failed pipe section was made from API 5L X46 line...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract Failures of various types of hydraulic couplings used to connect pipes in a naval vessel are described and used to illustrate some of the general procedures for failure analysis. Cracking of couplings, which were manufactured from nickel-aluminum- bronze extruded bar, occurred...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...Abstract Abstract New aircraft wing panels extruded from 7075-T6 aluminum exhibited an unusual pattern of circular black interrupted lines, which could not be removed by scouring or light sanding. The panels, subsequent to profiling and machining, were required to be penetrated inspected, shot...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that rolled bar stock should be preferred to extruded bar stock. Differences in grain structure of the forgings, as induced by differences in thermal-mechanical history of the forged material, can have a significant effect on susceptibility to exfoliation corrosion. Regarding thermal treatment, the results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded aluminum. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 aluminum had developed water leaks, which were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and tool loading. By application of damage models, it is possible to calculate from the stress–strain values obtained by finite element analysis a specific damage variable of the material due to fatigue loading. In Fig. 1 , a typical extrusion loading cycle is shown. In each cycle, a billet is extruded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... around the intersection of the S/N curves for the adhesive and the base material. A section was found to exhibit blistering ( Fig. 3 ) after chemical milling. Fig. 3 Blistering on 2024-T4 extruded section after chemical milling. ×12. Metallurgical investigation disclosed that the most...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., which would have been closer to the fire, also would have been softened. However, examination of T-section B showed that it had not been softened. The fire ladder broke because two of the four extruded aluminum alloy T-sections (A and D) in the side rails had a low yield strength; they had been...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion product on the external surface of the racks as shown in Figure 3 and to inspect the other weld areas. Fig. 3 Nodular corrosion product on storage rack The storage rack structure was fabricated from 6061 aluminum alloy. Rolled sheet and extruded bar were welded using a TIG process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., the tendency was for the hose material to extrude beneath the clamp, causing no clamp failure. When the testing machine was operated at maximum head travel (approximately 20 in. per min), one of the hose clamps broke in the same manner as the clamp in question. Except for slight rusting, and other evidence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... rim of jagged metal that had been extruded out of the crater, and the copper plating had been worn through at the bottom of the crater. Copper plating on the underface of the retainer had also been worn through by the motion between the retainer and the mating part. On the edge of the hole...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-fitting downstream. Six years and three months later the pipe began leaking at a high rate from a crack located at the site of the pinch clamp application. Pertinent Specification The pipe was extruded from ASTM grade PE 3306 polyethylene in accordance with ASTM standard D 2513. This is a high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... of the figure. This extruded weld metal formed during resistance welding between the securing ferrule and piston rod. Longitudinal sections for metallographic examination were taken through both halves of the fracture and a similar section was taken through a used unbroken damper to include the ferrule...