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Evaporators

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0060097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract An eddy current survey of the copper evaporator (chiller) tubes in an absorption air-conditioning unit revealed two tubes in the evaporator bundle with indications typical of longitudinal cracks. Significant necking down and grain distortion at the fracture surfaces was revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Several tubes in a tube bundle in an evaporator used to concentrate an acid nitrate solution failed by leakage. The feed to the evaporator contained about 6% nitrate, and the discharge about 60% nitrate. The tube bundle was comprised of type 309S (Nb) stainless steel drawn-and-welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Abstract A falling film black liquor evaporator consisted of flat twin plate heat exchangers and was used to increase black liquor solids content prior to its burning in the recovery boiler. Several plate heat exchangers were fabricated of AISI type 316L stainless steel by electric resistance...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Section through a type 309S (Nb) stainless steel evaporator tube containing a defective seam weld. The cavity shown resulted from crevice corrosion and extended longitudinally below the inner surface of the weld. 60× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Pitting and stress corrosion in type 316 stainless steel evaporator tubes. (a) Rust-stained and pitted area near the top of the evaporator tube. Not clear in the photograph, but visually discernible, are myriads of fine, irregular cracks. (b) Same area shown in (a) but after dye More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Micrograph of a transverse section of a burst copper evaporator tube showing the longitudinal rupture present in one of the failed tubes. At the fracture, grain deformation and necking down of the tube wall are evident. Such features are characteristic of overload failure in a ductile More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 29 Pitting and stress corrosion in type 316 stainless steel evaporator tubes. (a) Rust-stained and pitted area near the top of the evaporator tube. Not clear in the photograph, but visually discernible, are myriads of fine, irregular cracks. (b) Same area shown in (a) but after dye More
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Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 1 Evaporator portion of a finned cylinder heat pipe, showing the crack location where the sodium working fluid leaked to the atmosphere. Locations and viewing directions for metallographic examination are shown in (b). More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract After about four years of service, cracks appeared on the internal or process-side surfaces of four evaporator pans in a sugar concentrator. The pans consisted of a Mo stabilized austenitic stainless steel inner vessel surrounded by a mild steel steam jacket. Corrosion of the external...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Eddy current inspection was performed on a vertical evaporator unit (that contained 180 tubes) used in a chemical processing plant. It was advised that the tube material was type 316 stainless steel. The shell-side fluid was condensate and gaseous methylene chloride, while the tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... entering the service air lines left a chloride-containing compound upon evaporation within the air check valves and pressure/vent assembly. This compound subsequently reacted with the anodized, dichromate sealed check valve housing to lock the check valve poppets in a closed or partially closed position...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... The form of cracking which was mostly intergranular. Examination at higher magnification disclosed that a selective attack had taken place on the carbide constituents of the pearlite grains. An alkaline deposit on the fireside surface of the tube resulted from the evaporation of boiler water which had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... stresses. The narrow gap between vessel and mild steel casing may have aggravated the situation in that it hindered ventilation and evaporation of condensation and favored the absorption and concentration of acids and salts. Contact and crevice corrosion due to deposition of rust from the mild steel casing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A solution containing 50 to 70% calcium chloride (pH 7.5 to 8.5) was concentrated by evaporation in a brick-lined vessel by passing steam at a pressure of 15 atmospheres through a system of heating coils made of austenitic stainless steel X 10 Cr-Ni-Mo-Ti 18 12 (Material No. 1.4573...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the valve over a period and evaporation resulted in a solution which favored failure from stress-corrosion cracking. If corrosion resistant studs were desired, those of bronze or Monel metal are to be preferred. Boilers Corrosion resistance Austenitic stainless steel Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A Stirling engine heat pipe failed after only 2h of operation in a test situation. Cracking at the leading edge of an evaporator fin allowed air to enter the system and react with the sodium coolant. The fin was fabricated from 0.8 mm (0.03 in.) thick Inconel 600 sheet. The wick...
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 32 SEM of fracture surface of notched, fatigue-pre-cracked nickel single crystal cracked first in liquid mercury and then (after completely evaporating the mercury) in hydrogen gas (101 kPa) at 20 °C showing essentially identical appearance (tear ridges, slip lines, and isolated dimples More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... involved the use of direct-fired iron pots or steam heated evaporators with silicon iron tubes. Other systems used vacuum evaporating units lined with lead and acid resistant brick. However, with the more recent development of materials such as tantalum, zirconium, and reliable glass-lined steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This seems an unlikely situation in a component operating in an atmosphere of superheated steam, but when the long connections to the nozzles are considered, the matter becomes clearer. In all three lines condensation will take place and the condensation will return to the nozzles where it will be evaporated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... of chlorides within the crevice. The evaporative concentration of chloride in combination with the working and residual stresses, together with the elevated temperature, would provide ideal conditions for the development of cracking of the stress corrosion type Such cracking initially penetrated...