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Environmental cracking (plastics)

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... excessive stress on ophthalmic lenses in the form of working or residual stresses. Acetone environment Cracking, environmental effects Crazing Mechanical properties Plastic Safety glasses Swelling Polycarbonate Environmental cracking (plastics) Background Application Metal-framed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.../polyethylene terephthalate blend Environmental cracking (plastics) Brittle fracture Housings from an electrical appliance failed during an engineering evaluation. The housings had been injection molded from a commercial polycarbonate/PET (PC/PET) blend. The parts were being tested as part of a material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... attack Embrittlement Feedstock Glycerides Grips Injection moldings Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Brittle fracture Environmental cracking (plastics) A set of plastic grips from an electric consumer product failed while in service. The grips had been injection molded from a general-purpose...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... recovery. Glass fiber reinforced composites Hydrolisis Oxidation Glass-reinforced nylon 12 Environmental cracking (plastics) A component of a water filtration unit failed while being used in service for approximately eight months. The filter system had been installed in a commercial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract While there are many fracture mechanisms that can lead to the failure of a plastic component, environmental stress cracking (ESC) is recognized as one of the leading causes of plastic failure. This article focuses on unpacking the basic concepts of ESC to provide the engineer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or the chemical environment alone may not appreciably weaken a material. This phenomenon is referred to as environmental stress cracking (ESC). The ESC failure mechanism for a particular plastics-chemical environment combination can be quite complex and, in many cases, is not yet fully understood. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in physical contact with the PVC has been known to induce environmental stress cracking in the adjoining material ( Ref 8 ). Plasticizer migration to the surface of a plasticized polymer has also been shown to have an adverse effect on adhesion of the polymer product to a substrate ( Ref 8 ). Plasticizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... major aging mechanisms and discusses methods used in product service lifetime assessment for them. The four aging mechanisms–chemical degradation, environmental stress cracking (ESC), creep, and fatigue—also are discussed in the articles “ Organic Chemical-Related Failure of Plastics ,” “ Environmental...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 44 SEM fractographs of a polyvinyl chloride specimen fractured by environmental stress cracking, with phthalate plasticizer as a stress-cracking agent. (a) Original magnification: 500×. (b) Original magnification: 1500×. (c) Bridged fibrils. Original magnification: 3500×. (d) Bridged More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and effect of environmental conditions that caused damage to occur. 5 These results are of particular value in preventing damage from occurring and lowering the number of parts that get damaged. 6 Experimental Analysis Cracks in the screw thread can be seen with the naked eye using a magnifying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Example 1 in this article is just one case of this, and more information on environmental stress cracking (ESC) of plastics is described in the article “Effect of Environment on the Performance of Plastics” in this Volume. Nonsolvents that possess specific physiochemical affinity leading to wetting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... degradation and long-term performance. accelerated life testing aging environmental stress cracking (ESC) material property degradation plastic materials service life ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING and aging methodologies are increasingly being used to generate engineering data for determining...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... limited by the synergistic effects of stress and a hostile environment. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as environmental stress cracking (ESC), causes the initiation of crazing and crack formation which can lead to failure by changing the material from a ductile to a brittle plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the electrochemical nature of corrosion and provides the typical analysis of environmental- and corrosion-related failures. It presents common methods of testing of laboratory corrosion and discusses the processes involved in the prevention of environmental- and corrosion-related failures of metals and nonmetals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... mechanism of fracture, such as crazing and shear tearing, and the various fracture modes of polymers, such as brittle and ductile behavior, fatigue, environmental stress cracking, creep, and others, are covered in the articles “ Crazing and Fracture in Polymers ,” “ Fracture Mechanics Testing of Plastics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article reviews generalized test methodologies for fatigue characterization of polymers and examines fatigue fracture mechanisms in different engineering plastics. It provides detailed micromechanistic images of crack-tip processes for a variety of semicrystalline and amorphous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and designing of plastic parts. The article provides information on the material-related design criteria that depend on the applications, environmental conditions of use, and performance requirements. It discusses physical properties of plastics based on their relevance to real-world environmental conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., solvation, plasticization, chemical attack, or environmental stress cracking can occur. In the case of property alteration through solvation or plasticization, FTIR can be helpful in identifying the absorbed chemicals. Because these chemicals are present within the failed plastic material, the likelihood...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coverage on specific types of fracture (processes such as ductile and brittle fracture, fatigue, creep, and complex environmentally assisted cracking from stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen embrittlement) can be found in other articles in this Volume. Articles on the fractographic appearances...