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Electrolytic etching

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., cone and roller) were revealed to be uniformly electrolytically etched by visual examination. The action similar to anodic etching was believed to have occurred as a result of stray currents in the electric motor (not properly grounded) and the presence of an electrolyte (moisture) between the cup...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... to be low. Investigation (visual inspection, and micrographs of sections with electrolytic etching using 10 N KOH and then again after re-polishing and etching with Murakami's reagent) supported the conclusions that the casting never received a proper solution anneal. Recommendations included possible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0091048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... images etched with Vilella's reagent followed by electrolytic etching in 10% oxalic acid) supported the conclusion that the heat exchanger cracked due to weld cold cracking or postwelding brittle overload that occurred via flexure during fabrication. The brittle nature of the weld was likely due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... that the cracks had started from the outside surface of the tube. Electrolytic etching further showed that they had propagated mainly across the grains. It was concluded that this was a typical case of transcrystalline stress corrosion. Chlorides Heating coils X10CrNiMoTi 18 12 Transgranular fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... and measured 1.5 m (58 in.) in diameter and 8.5 m (28 ft) in length. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, radiography, dye-penetrant inspection, and hydrostatic testing of all E-Brite welds, 4x images, 100x/200x images electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid, and V-notch Charpy testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...× Fig. 4 Microstructure of sheet. 500×. Etch: V2A-pickle. Fig. 5 Microstructure of sheet. 500×. Electrolytic etch with ammonia water, 1.5 V. Fig. 6 Microstructure of sheet. 500×. Electrolytic etch with caustic soda 10n, 1.5V. Fig. 7 Intergranular crack in sheet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...). (b) Section through the fracture area showing an intergranular crack. Electrolytically etched with oxalic acid. 540×. (c) Specimen of the work metal showing carbide precipitation at grain boundaries and within grains. Electrolytically etched with oxalic acid. 2700× Investigation Conclusions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... sealant was recommended. Aircraft components Corrosion environment Electrolytic etching Fuels Marking Rinsing Sealers 6061 UNS A96061 Intergranular corrosion Inspections revealed fuel line corrosion beneath ferrules ( Fig. 1 ). The cause of the corrosion was traced to the fuel line...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... through a typical pit in the weld metal. Electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid. 16×. Fig. 10 Cross section of pits at the surface away from the weld metal. Electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid. 24×. Fig. 11 Surface pit and subsurface tunnel produced by corrosion in area away...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. Top, 62×, Bottom, 496× Fig. 4 Slightly sensitized microstructure of the unswaged section of the tube, consisting of austenite grains with carbides along the grain boundaries. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. Top, 62×. Bottom, 496× Crack Path The typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... depth of pitting from internal surface. (×5). (backing ring seam). Fig. 4 Preferential attack along grain boundaries. (×50) Electrolytic etching brought the grain-boundaries into prominence around the pitting, Fig. 5 , but those in the region between the weld and pitting, in the head...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
...% oxalic acid, electrolytic etch. 1.75x Fig. 3 High-magnification view at the exterior tank surface showing branching, transgranular stress-corrosion cracking. 10% oxalic acid, electrolytic etch. 14x The analytical investigation concluded that the tank failed as a result of stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... such as electrolytic and hand polishing and the vibration method resulted in poor edge and crack edge definition due to material thickness. Etching experiments involved a grain surface attack and hence produced a rather strong surface relief from which the grain boundary cracks could again not clearly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001344
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to have originated on the internal surface. Fig. 3 Branched transgranular SCC of 304H stainless steel by caustic. 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch. 152× Fig. 4 Fine details of the cracking damage in the stainless steel. 10% oxalic acid, electrolytic etch. 304× Chemical Analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... from polishing are visible. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. 50×. Visual Examination of General Physical Features Each failed type 304L stainless steel impeller can be briefly described as a cone-shaped hub approximately 750 mm (29.5 in.) high, 1375 mm (54.063 in.) at the base, and 405 mm (16...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... visible. The fact that they are attacked by electrolytic etching in ammonia water ( Fig. 10 ) proves that carbides of high chromium content or chromium carbides are present. The regions near the grain-boundaries which are depleted in chromium as a result of this carbide precipitation can be attacked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... a 0.3 micron aluminum oxide slurry. The sample was electrolytically etched in a 10 percent oxalic acid solution by applying a voltage of 4V for approximately 30 seconds. The polished cross-section is shown under both low and high magnification in Figures 6 and 7 , respectively. Figure 6 shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and the fairing (arrow 1) and interior notches at arrows 2 and 3. Electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid. Approximately 7× Investigation Conclusions Selected References Selected References • Failures Related to Welding , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... under the scale layer, a hard phase, which clearly showed relief in phase contrast ( Fig. 8 ), had precipitated at the austenite grain boundaries. It was stained dark by Murakami's ferricyanide solution, and also by electrolytic etching in 0.1 N sodium hydroxide 1 , showing that it consisted...