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Electrolytic cells

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0046476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A fused-salt electrolytic-cell pot containing a molten eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium chlorides and operating at melt temperatures from 500 to 650 deg C (930 to 1200 deg F) exhibited excessive corrosion after two months of service. The pot was a welded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-resistant material, such as nickel, nickel-base alloy, or stainless steel, was recommended. Anodes Electrolytic cells Nuclear reactor components 1010 ASTM A519 MT1010 UNS G10100 Uniform corrosion Background Visual Examination of General Physical Features Testing Procedure and Results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and on the exposed surface of the tube established an electrolytic cell under the deposit. The end results were nodules of a corrosion product and pits that in some cases eventually became holes in the tube wall. The tubing in the cooler was replaced, and the cooling-water supply was changed from river to city...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... An examination of the total applied cathodic current and the distribution of cathodic current to different anodes over a period of time indicated some malfunctioning in the internal CP system. The blistering in the coating led to the formation of a number of electrolytic cells on the surface of the bottom plates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to their relative potentials for a given electrolytic solution. For example, the galvanic series of potentials for metals in a chloride-containing aqueous solution (i.e., seawater) is often used for purposes of general comparison. This series is shown in Fig. 3 . When two metals of a galvanic cell are widely...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... attachment lugs. Possibly the most compelling evidence was the intergranular nature of the cracks. They initiated at corrosion pits at the steel pin/aluminum hole interface and probably were accelerated by hydrogen generated at the electrolytic cell created by the steel/aluminum dissimilar metal couple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and connected by an electrolyte, a galvanic current flows between them because of the inherent electrical potential difference between the two. The resulting reaction is referred to as couple action, and the electrically coupled system is known as a galvanic cell. The dissimilar metals/materials couple consists...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of chloride in the corrosion product but neither sulphite nor sulphide was present in either sample. Sections taken for metallographic examination were etched electrolytically in 5% H 2 SO 4 . Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate the corrosion pitting which had occurred; Figs. 7 and 8 typify the corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the influence of stress. To establish the susceptibility of the 17-4 PH fasteners to hydrogen embrittlement, V-notched bolts were charged cathodically with hydrogen for 15 min in a 4% sulfuric acid electrolyte at 0.02 amp per sq in. The specimens were immediately cleaned and loaded to 10,000 lb in a tensile...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the pH, oxidation reduction potential, resistivity, and water content of the soil as well as with the type of soil. Very dry soils that lack the electrolyte needed to support active corrosion cells are benign. Moist, aerobic soils, where oxygen can readily reach exposed steel, show corrosion rates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... with the abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in soils along a buried pipeline Factor Range Correlation coefficient Number of acid-producing bacteria (a) , cells/g soil 10 3 –10 8 +0.829 Total organic carbon in groundwater, % 0.05–1.2 +0.645 Soil resistivity, Ω · cm 500–30,000 −0.642...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that was denickelified (top) and unaffected base metal (bottom). Etched with equal parts nitric and acetic acid. 375× Abstract Abstract This article describes the characteristics of tubing of heat exchangers with respect to general corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, selective leaching, and oxygen-cell attack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... concentration cells, will promote, inevitably, some localized pits, where the attack rate will result strongly favoured by the high ratio between the cathodic and anodic areas. In these cases, the potential difference can attain a value of 500 mV and exceed the values reported in literature references 19...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... These cracks were identified as transgranular stress corrosion ( Fig. 6 ). Fig. 6 Transgranular branching crack in blade prior to addition of weld buildup at blade-to-hub attachment. Titanium carbide/nitrate particles and their tracks from polishing are visible. Oxalic acid electrolytic etch. 50...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in an aqueous environment will naturally form a biofilm on most surfaces. When the biofilm is formed, organic decomposition can occur. The by-products of organic decomposition and/or growth can initiate corrosion. Additionally, the biofilm can cultivate an electrochemical corrosion cell that can lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and, ultimately, small particles of metal become detached. The fact that cavitation damage can be produced experimentally in materials such as plastics or glass tends to support the view that it is an entirely mechanical phenomenon, as does the evidence that it can also be produced in non-electrolytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... pitting caused by differential aeration or concentration-cell corrosion (crevice corrosion). This type of corrosion occurs frequently but is often not identified as crevice corrosion. Corrosion by differential aeration arises from localized differences in the concentration of dissolved gases (mainly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Edge Preservation Grinding Polishing Electrolytic Polishing Field Metallography Examination of Microstructures Fracture Profile Sections Manufacturing Related Failures Service Failures Rolling-Contact Fatigue References References 1. Vander Voort G.F. ( 1986...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...-cell work, they concluded that G-8 experienced conditions similar to F-10 and E-6 experienced conditions like E-8. It was concluded that all other specimens experienced temperatures <727°C. Fig. 3 Delta ferrite in as-fabricated Midland specimen (modified Murakami's reagent). Other...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... O → 2 Al ( OH ) 3 + 3 H 2 In the electrochemical reaction, the positive charged ions leave the surface of the anode into the electrolyte solution leaving electrons behind to flow through the metal to the cathode. At the cathode, the electrons are consumed by the hydrogen...