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Electroless copper

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... electron microscopy, EDXA, and x-ray mapping were used to study the steel in the vicinity of this part of the fracture surface. It was found to be contaminated with copper. Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from the scale showed that it consisted of magnetite and hematite. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... tested from one side of the board but lost when tested from the other. In a fourth case, an open circuit found between a plated through-hole and contact pad on a six-layer printed circuit board was caused by an etching defect. Copper plating Printed circuits Electroless copper Surface treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with ion vapour deposited (IVD) aluminium. The inside of the hub, which has a polygon shape to accommodate a crank lever, was coated with electroless nickel. Fig. 3 a: Main landing gear components: broken axle (1) and crank lever (2). b: Details of the axle showing the longitudinal crack in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is designed to make very precise cuts. They are smaller in size than the usual laboratory abrasive cutoff saw and use much smaller blades, typically from 7.6 to 20.3 cm (3 to 8 in.) in diameter. These blades can be of the nonconsumable type, made of copper-base alloys with diamond or cubic boron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... shows the microstructure adjacent to a LME crack in a eutectoid steel where liquid copper has penetrated the grain boundaries at 1100 °C (2012 °F) while the sample was austenitic and under an applied tensile load. Light microscope examination reveals a discontinuous film of copper in the prior-austenite...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 2028 in the photo were damaged badly while those of 1611 were not. Because there was an applied tensile stress, liquid copper started to penetrate the austenite grain boundaries (liquid metal embrittlement). Meanwhile, the axle lost much of its strength, and the partially cracked axle ended its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... 2 O 2 → 2 Fe ( OH ) 3 The final product is the familiar rust . The classic example of a replacement reaction, the interaction of zinc with copper sulfate solution, illustrates metal deposition: (Eq 18) Zn + Cu 2 + → Zn 2 + + Cu or, viewed as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cross at the bond interface of a solder joint for a component on a printed circuit board. A high concentration of phosphorus indicates degradation of the electroless nickel plating during subsequent gold plating on the printed circuit board bond pad. Elemental maps of a sample surface provide...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... retention is important, as it usually is when a metallographic specimen is prepared through a fracture origin, a sample can be mounted using a hard mounting material or it can be plated electrolytically or using electroless solutions before being mounted. In general, electroless plating using nickel, copper...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can be mounted using a hard mounting material or it can be plated electrolytically or using electroless solutions before being mounted. In general, electroless plating using nickel, copper, iron, or chromium is the preferred method, because bonding is superior, with less tendency for the plating to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fe ( OH ) 3 The final product is the familiar rust. The classic example of a replacement reaction, the interaction of zinc with copper sulfate solution, illustrates metal deposition: (Eq 18) Zn + Cu 2 + → Zn 2 + + Cu or, viewed as partial reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the localized bands caused by alloy mixing. Chemical analysis of the plating material showed it to be nickel, probably electroless nickel because it had a high hardness. The clapper failed by fatigue and brittle fracture because it was welded with an incorrect filler metal. Fatigue cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2