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Electrical wire

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were comprised of 19-wire strands; the wires were aluminum alloy 6201-T81. The aluminum electrical conductors were from 65 to 80 km (40 to 80 mi) long, high-voltage transmission lines installed from 1982 to 1985 to service oil fields in Alaska. The transmission towers were 20 m (65 ft) high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Fig. 5 Electrical panel in incident 2. Arrow indicates aluminum wire with deteriorated insulation. Fig. 6 Close-up of aluminum wire with deteriorated insulation. Arrow indicates where deteriorated portion of wire was close to conduit. Fig. 2 Electrical panel and surrounding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... 5 SEM fractograph of the fracture surface as in Fig. 4 , showing equiaxed dimpled rupture Abstract Abstract Wire ropes, pulleys, counterweights, and connecting systems are used for auto tensioning of contact wires of electric railways. A wire rope in one such auto tensioning system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The conical helical spring sealed, within each switch enclosure, fractured to lead to the failure of several electrical toggle switches. The spring was fabricated from 0.43 mm diam AISI type 302 stainless steel wires. Appreciable amount of scale was observed on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 × 50 Fig. 4 × 500 Fig. 5 × 10 Fig. 6 × 200 Fig. 7 × 150 Abstract Abstract Following the fusing of one of the copper leads in the choke circuit of an electric welder, a piece of the affected lead was obtained...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract In an electric power station, seven turbine blades out of 112 broke or cracked within 8 to 14 months after commencement of operation. The blades in question were all located on the last running wheel in the low pressure section of a 35,000 kW high pressure condensing turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... martensite, which could only result from a highly localized, high temperature event, and self-quenching. This is consistent with an electric arc from stray current in the system. Examination of the wire surfaces at the OD of the springs did show areas of remelted material at the fatigue zone origins ( Figs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was that, at the moment of rupture, an electric arc was established between the separating steel ends. This would account for the loss of material by meltdown, as well as for the metal droplets on the fracture surface of the steel wire. The sequence of fine pearlite/martensite to degenerate pearlite to original...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... localized heating, which led to melting of the wire. Chemical analysis Corrosion products Discoloration Electric Sensors Wire Copper (Other, miscellaneous, or unspecified) failure An electronic sensor coil failed continuity testing, indicating that a break was present in the polymercoated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the inter- or trans-granular type. Cracking of the form shown however was indicative of failure from stress-corrosion. Banding Chlorides Electric motors Motor rotors Soldering fluxes Wire 18-8 Stress-corrosion cracking ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0065826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... with type 430 wires, and they performed for more than twenty years (except for failures due to electrical short circuits) until the BOF shop was closed down recently. This is a good example of the problems that can occur in practical failure analyses work. The original carbon steel wire was deemed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001805
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: Guide Wire Fracture Case Study 4: Fractured Surgical Table Caster Case Study 5: Fractured Cable Stop Conclusions References References 1. Louthan M.R. Jr , Hydrogen embrittlement of metals: a primer for the failure analyst . J. Fail. Anal. Prev. 8 , 289 – 387 ( 2008...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mu m (1600 mu in.) diam type 304 stainless steel wire screening had been torn and pieces were missing. Scanning electron microscope revealed that the fracture had occurred at wire crossover locations by a fatigue mechanism. The problem was solved by sintering the individual screens into a single unit...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Fig. 1 Fractured music-wire spring. (a) Fracture surface at 9.2×; arrow indicates fracture origin. (b) Fracture surface, 9.2×; arrow indicates hard kernel that caused fracture Abstract Abstract A cadmium-plated music-wire return spring that operated in a pneumatic cylinder designed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... micrograph showing crack initiation in a region of underdeposit attack Abstract Abstract Cracking occurred in type 304L stainless steel sheaths on nichrome wire heaters that had been in storage for about 5 years in a coastal atmosphere. The cracks were discovered when the heater coils were removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... debris for visual examination prior to metallographic sample preparation. Transverse specimens were sectioned from the fractured end of each failed wire rod for optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. These samples were individually mounted in electrically conductive copper-containing resin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the onset of impact fretting. In some turbines, a wire is threaded through holes in the outer ends of the blades to dampen down vibration. In this case, the frictional energy dissipated in the fretting process is the effective agent and may be considered one of the few cases where fretting is beneficial...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Printed Wiring Assemblies and Electrical Components ,” Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Co. , Seattle, WA , 1990 33. Kruse R.J. and Bossi R.H. , X-Ray Tomographic Techniques for Inspection of Electronic Components , Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0089766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... quenched and tempered to a hardness of 241 to 285 HRB. Preheating to 370 deg C (700 deg F) before and during welding with AISI 4130 steel wire was specified. It was also recommended that the weld be subjected to magnetic-particle inspection and then stress relieved at 595 deg C (1100 deg F), followed...