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Ductile brittle transition

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crack propagation fractography metals microscale models root-cause failure analysis specimen preparation void coalescence void nucleation THE CONCEPT OF DUCTILE AND BRITTLE BEHAVIOR generally applies to the macroscopic scale. However, there is no universally accepted transition point from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... kPa (150 psi) and 120 deg C (250 deg F) maximum in 93 to 99% sulfuric acid. The fracture originated at stress-corrosion cracks that occurred in a high-stress transition region at the valve body-to-flange juncture. The mechanical properties of the failed valve were below those of the manufacturer's...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... fracture toughness ( Ref 1 ). The stress concentration factor at the root of the imprinted threads is significantly higher than the stress concentration at the bolt hole without the thread imprint. The ability of nitrogen to increase the ductile-brittle transition temperature is pronounced, and there...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... sections, segments C, D, E, and F in Fig. 1 , on either side of the manway A field examination of the failure surfaces revealed characteristic brittle fracture chevrons, brittle fracture transition into ductile tearing, delamination along the mid-plate thickness plane and a fracture origin on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the nil-ductility temperature (the highest temperature at which small flaws can propagate as brittle fractures) of three plates. Two plates were at or below their nil-ductility temperature. Refinery maintenance and inspection records showed that the carbon steel shroud-support ring had been removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... ductility requirements of API type 2 material; the elongation and reduction of area were less than specified. The toughness of the steel was low at ambient temperature. No evidence of overloading was found. The cleavage features on the fracture surface of the clamp material were indicative of brittle...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... wholly brittle manner, but ductile behaviour can be restored either by a sub-critical annealing treatment which results in recrystallisation of the work-hardened layer and the re-solution of the precipitates responsible for the ageing, or by removing the surface layer mechanically; severe work-hardening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... hole during pressing-oil operation for the swelling bore is much lower than the ultimate strength. Brittle fracture occurs when the maximum stress in the material reaches a critical value. It is suggested that the maximum hoop tensile stress can not lead to instantaneous brittle cracking even at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A catastrophic brittle fracture occurred in a welded steel (ASTM A517 grade H) trapezoidal cross-section box girder while the concrete deck of a large bridge was being poured. The failure occurred across the full width of a 57 mm (2 1 4 in.) thick, 760 mm (30 in.) wide flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... thermal shock in the pipe which, when cooled below its NDTT, cracked in a brittle manner. Low temperature Nil ductility transition temperature Nuclear power generation Piping Thermal shock ASTM A516 grade 70 UNS K02700 Brittle fracture On February 3, 1984, Georgia Power...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The right front spring hanger on a dual rear axle of the tractor of a tractor-trailer combination failed, causing the vehicle to roll-over. The hanger was made from malleable cast iron that had been heat treated to produce a decarburized surface layer and a pearlitic transition layer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... about a week. The fractograph shown in Fig. 6 shows faint horizontal striations and fine steps with a macroscopically flat brittle overall character. No ductile dimples were seen on the fracture surface. Fig. 6 Scanning electron microscopic fractograph showing the faint horizontal striations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... directly visible at the macroscale. Fractures that are initially ductile then transition to brittle (case 4) are usually associated with rising-load ductile tearing, or the initial ductility may be inferred by transverse strain at the crack tip. The size of the plastic zone may be microscale in this case...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... appearance of the fracture surface. Figure 11 shows examples of different types of brittle fracture. Fig. 11 Brittle fractures. (a) Fracture of mild carbon steel below the ductile/brittle transition temperature. Note the appearance of river lines on the faces of the cleavage surfaces. (b) Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Engineered components fail predominantly in four major ways: fracture, corrosion, wear, and undesirable deformation (i.e., distortion). Typical fracture mechanisms feature rapid crack growth by ductile or brittle cracking; more progressive (subcritical) forms involve crack growth by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A number of failures involving carbon and alloy steels were analyzed to assess the effects of inclusions and their influence on mechanical properties. Inclusions, including brittle oxides and more ductile manganese sulfides (MnS), affect fatigue endurance limit, fatigue crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... at higher magnification. 1953× Fig. 7 SEM micrograph showing transition from intergranular to ductile fracture morphology. The atmosphere side of the disc is the lower left of the micrograph. 756× Fig. 8 SEM micrograph showing secondary intergranular cracking on the cylinder side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries. This article describes the processes involved in erosion of ductile materials, brittle materials, and elastomers. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given on abrasive erosion, liquid impingement erosion, cavitation, and erosion-corrosion. In addition, the article provides information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the morphology of the particles, the hardness of the eroded material, and the impact angle. In ductile materials, Φ SPE increases with a decrease in the impact angle and is at maximum at small impact angles, when the shear stresses favor wear by microcutting. On the contrary, in hard and brittle...