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Drop forgings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... Abstract The cause of fracture of two piston rods of hammers of a drop forge was determined. The first rod of 180 mm diam consisted of an unalloyed steel with 0.37% C and 0.67% Mn and had a strength of 56 kp/sq mm at 26% elongation. Fatigue fractures propagated from several points which could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... that the real damage was done during the heat-up forging (drop-forging) and could not be removed during heat-treatment. Chains Cracking (fracturing) Drop forgings Overheating 30CrMoV 9 Metalworking-related failures A chain link which was part of the hoisting mechanism of a drop hammer broke...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... if the temperature of the blank is below about 1149 °C (2100 °F). Such blanks are also set aside, but can be re-inserted into the heating line after cooling. This forging was made in two steps. After the blank left the induction coil, it dropped through a chute and an operator placed it in a hammer forge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001615
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... burst in this stock, reducing the forging temperature may help, but the total upset forging may not be completed in one heating because the temperature may drop below the minimum specified for this steel before the final stage. Because the forging temperature cannot be lowered, a cleaner raw bar stock...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... called “heat checking”. This type of damage is the result of constraints generated by high thermal gradients especially in a small surface area. During forging, the surfaces of the die are subjected to a high thermal flux, whereas, between two successive operations, the surface temperature drops...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... The upper die is then dropped or propelled downward onto the bottom impression. This hammering forces the hot metal to flow and conform to the die impression. The finishing impression is generally the censer section of the die. It is used to produce the final shape before trimming. Closed-die forgings can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... where velocity is the major energy component (i.e., power hammer or drop hammer forging). Thus, the act of bringing the die halves together precisely can be a daunting task. As a result, the dimensional specifications for forgings will often take into account the difficulties in achieving some...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... frequently for testing very large specimens such as forged steel or wrought alloy steel rolls. In this procedure, a diamond-tipped hammer is dropped from a fixed height onto the surface of the material being tested. The height of rebound of the hammer is a measure of the hardness of the metal. Leeb...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article provides a discussion on the imperfections found in steel forgings. The problems encountered in sheet metal forming are also discussed. The article concludes with information on the causes of failure in cold formed parts. anisotropy blisters centerline shrinkage chemical segregation cold...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...) for 2 h, then cool to room temperature. Tempering in the salt pot used for quenching, immediately after quenching and before the case temperature dropped below 40 °C (100 °F), was successful in eliminating the problem. No other instances of this type of failure were experienced. Selected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in.) thick ring forging made of AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was present on the crack surface. The interior microstructure ( Fig. 16b ) revealed an overaustenitized condition, coarse plate martensite, and retained austenite (white). The hardness was 61 to 62 HRC. A section...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... martensite and unstable retained austenite, often fail by quench cracking. Figure 16(a) shows a 44-cm (17 1 2 -in.) OD × 33-cm (13-in.) ID × 5-cm (2-in.) thick ring forging made of AISI O1 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was present on the crack surface. The interior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... with landing and taxiing, and the analyses are usually validated by drop, static strength and fatigue tests. The energy absorbing criteria and the limit loads appeared to be generally adequate for the landing gears investigated as the overload failures reported resulted not from hard landings but from unusual...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the fragment consists mainly of tempered martensite with a fine dispersion of globular carbides, and a maximum hardness ranging within 870 to 900 HV ( Fig. 9 ). Similar microstructure is observed also in heat treated AISI H13 tool steel [ 10 ]. A hardness distribution profile indicated a hardness drop (maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... and are even more likely to occur during extrusion operations. (These are called bursts in forgings.) The severe stresses that build up internally cause transverse subsurface cracks. Fig. 6 Seam in an induction-hardened 1151 steel shaft. (a) Unetched. Original magnification: 65×. (b) 1% nital etch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was not provided. Another study of AISI 4340 with 220 ksi UTS found that the transverse fracture toughness dropped from 97.2 to 67.9 ksi-√inch with a sulfur content variation from 0.004 to 0.013 wt.% [ 11 ]. A study of structural steels with 285 ksi UTS found that the longitudinal fracture toughness dropped...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Shock Loading of a Wire Rope Shock loading of a wire rope causes a variety of different types of damage. Shock loading or rebound, such as can occur during a dropped load, can result in localized separation of wire strands, creating permanent kinks, bird cage structures, and other discontinuities...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and the fracture-initiation sites; they were flame cut and then sawed into manageable sizes for laboratory work. Chemical analyses of the materials of construction demonstrated that the original materials met the specified chemistries. Drop-weight tests, dynamic tear tests, and Charpy V-notch impact tests...