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Dilution

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Eutectic carbide clusters (arrows) and cracks in F-10 at the weld dilution zone/base metal (starts at top edge of micrograph) interface (Murakami's reagent). More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Type 301 half-hard clamp loops that were hydrogen charged in diluted NaCl solution with platinum anode in the presence of MoS 2 lubricant for 5 days More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047879
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and not in the heat-affected zone of the forged steel shaft. Microscopic investigation and chemical analysis of the steel shaft revealed presence of martensite (offered a path of easy crack propagation) around the fusion line and dilution of the weld metal by the carbon steel shaft. The microstructure was found...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A 1-in. diam pump spindle fractured within the length covered by the boss of the impeller which was attached to the spindle by means of an axial screw. The pump had been in use in a chemical plant handling mixtures of organic liquids and dilute sulfuric acid having a pH value of 2 to 4...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... for the exterior surface of the weld. A segmented backup ring with a gas channel was used inside the vessel to shield the weld root. The pressure vessel failed due to contamination of the fusion zone by oxygen, which resulted when the gas shielding the root face of the weld was diluted by air that leaked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of using too large a welding rod and too much heat input, melting of the low-carbon steel handle, which diluted the austenitic stainless steel filler metal and formed martensitic steel in the weld zone. Because it was impractical to preheat and postheat the type 502 stainless steel cover plate, the low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... by dilution of the alloy and the presence of sulfur caused hot shortness. The necessary internal stress to produce extensive cracking was produced by the differential thermal expansion of the carbon and stainless steels. Periodic careful gouging of the affected areas followed by repair welding was recommended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the borderline passivity of type 316L in hot dilute sulfuric acid (about 0.1%). Inaccuracy of the testing was attributed to the presence of cupric ions in the lead-lined vessel fluids, which had been released by corrosion of the copper coils. Careful control of both temperature and pH was recommended to reduce...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Section of cross section in Fig. 5 . Top crust B and primary grain boundary cracks. Etched in dilute aqueous sulphuric acid. 1 × More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 3 Flange disk according to Fig. 2 , section parallel to fracture plane, Etch: Diluted hydrochloric acid 1:1, 70° C. 2.5 × More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 7 A slitter knife of D2 tool steel exhibits characteristic grinding cracks (both parallel and network types) when etched in cold dilute nitric acid. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 a. Transverse fracture. b. Inner surface at transverse fracture. Views. N = groove at exterior, G = uppermost thread inside. Fracture descaled with dilute hydrochloric acid with inhibitor. Approx. 1 × More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Cracks in pressure vessel made of ASTM A515 carbon steel lined with type 405 stainless steel. Failure occurred at plug welds because of dilution of weld metal. (a) Micrograph of specimen through weld area etched in acid cupric chloride showing ASTM A515 carbon steel (top), interface More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 29 Cracks in pressure vessel made of ASTM A515 carbon steel lined with type 405 stainless steel. Failure occurred at plug welds because of dilution of weld metal. (a) Micrograph of specimen through weld area etched in acid cupric chloride showing ASTM A515 carbon steel (top), interface More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... condition toward the top of the tubes, in contrast to the severe corrosion toward the bottom, is believed to be the result of differences in exposure to the dilute nitric acid cleaning solution. For example, rings of various colors on the insides of the tubes indicated that the nitric acid was allowed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... to a significant extent by concentrated sulphuric acid, but if dilution occurs, then corrosion does take place. Pre-supposing that dilution had occurred some time during the service life of the tank—and this could easily be brought about by the condensation of water vapour on a surface wetted with concentrated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the flange disk for macroscopic metallographic examination. it was pickled with diluted hydrochloric acid. This caused the erosion of a coarse-meshed network that coincided with the primary grain boundaries in the globular solidified inner zone, but cut across the dendrites in the crystallized outer zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048751
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... “Failures Related to Welding” in this Volume). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry of the areas surrounding the cracks showed that a type 316 electrode was not used for the root pass. Analysis indicated that the root pass was instead made using a nickel-copper alloy electrode. Dilution effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001170
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... descaled with dilute hydrochloric acid with inhibitor. Approx. 1 × The fracture apparently propagated from the base of the thread and then followed the thread in a circumferential direction ( Figs. 1 and 2 horizontal at bottom). It then broke through radially at the top across the ring due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... to be examined contained the fractured circumferential seam. The fracture was so well hidden that its course was made visible only after etching with dilute hydrochloric acid ( Fig. 1 ). It corresponded almost exactly to the transition of the welding seam into the pipe. Fig. 1 Surface of cracked pipe...