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Diffusion coatings

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... been applied in 1966, when these coatings were relatively new. It is evident that maintaining the integrity of a protective coating could significantly increase the life of a nickel-base alloy blade operating in a hot and corrosive environment. Corrosion products Diffusion coatings Turbine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., surface protection is required to minimize this effect. To protect and delay the destructive hot corrosion action, special corrosion protective coatings of two types, aluminide or chromium (diffusion) coatings and overlay coatings, are applied. Also to reduce the exposure of the superalloys to the highest...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the coating and the alloy and subsequently, may alter the microstructure of the coating and/or the substrate. The formation of metal sulfides in the protective coating may eventually lead to diffusion into the substrate via grain boundaries or other relatively easy diffusion pathways in the coating that may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... those of 400ES. Additionally, more aluminum oxides, formed by aluminum diffusion, were observed at the bond-coat/substrate interface of the 721ES samples. Fig. 2 Backscattered images of cross-sectional area of (a) 400 and (b) 721ES. Higher-magnification micrographs of top/bond-coat interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... coatings that improve performance of superalloy. diffusion gas turbines high-temperature coatings high-temperature corrosion interdiffusion oxidation superalloys WHEN CORROSION FAILURES OCCUR at high temperatures (300 to 1700 °C, or 570 to 3090 °F), the unscheduled outages result in loss...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... to 0.43 mils). The coating was applied from a plating bath to which brighteners were added. Bright, impervious coatings increase the possibility of hydrogen embrittlement in steels by forming a barrier to outward hydrogen diffusion from plated parts. An accepted practice for removing hydrogen picked...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... One frequently used porous coating consists of several layers of sintered cobalt alloy beads. These beads are typically 0.5 to 0.76 mm (0.020 to 0.030 in.) in diameter and also conform to ASTM F-75 composition requirements. Diffusion bonding occurs by holding the beads in contact with the substrate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron oxides on all...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 25 Schematics of the degradation mechanisms of spalling, oxidation, and inward diffusion for coatings More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... fasteners and appropriately-applied and treated compatible coatings. Brittle fracture Castings Diffusers Galvanic corrosion Transition joints 356.0 UNS A03560 Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Galvanic corrosion Background Uncoated high-strength alloy steel cap screws retaining a cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Brittle intergranular fracture, typical of a hydrogen-induced delayed failure, caused the failure of an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni landing gear beam. Corrosion resulting from protective coating damage released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are used for blade applications: diffusion coatings and overlay coatings. Both types of coatings result in a surface layer enriched in oxide-forming elements to promote formation of a protective oxide layer. However, the protective coatings themselves are subject to degradation under engine operating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0048674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... to clamp onto the framework prior to springback. The heat treatment cycle of the fasteners consisted of austenitizing, quenching, tempering to obtain a tempered martensite microstructure, acid cleaning, zinc electroplating, coating with a clear dichromate and thereafter baking to remove the nascent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that the diffusion of ozone to the crack tip is the rate-controlling step, although ozone induces chain scission ( Ref 10 ). Very few studies have been conducted on chemically induced polymer cracking that involve crack propagation tests. It is thought that the overall failure mechanism occurs through chain scission...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to sulfidation are available, it would not be practical to replace all the transfer lines on all the furnaces of the unit based on a single failure of this kind. Likewise, although diffusion coatings rich in aluminum are available, it is also not considered practical to coat all the transfer lines in response...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., a diffusion-controlled deformation process known as creep occurs. The stress required for creep deformation may be well below the yield strength of the alloy. The temperature dependence on creep is a function of the homologous temperature, which is expressed as the ratio of the metal temperature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... Fig. 17 Coating degeneration and corrosion attack in MAR-M302 vane along the concave airfoil side. (a) Fine cracking; (b) Subsurface shrinkage porosity; (c) Corrosion product penetration in the subsurface porosity. The coating and the diffusion zones between the coating and the matrix were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... examination to have been overheated for a sufficiently long time to reduce the tensile strength below the minimum required for the steel. It was interpreted that the wide difference in tensile strength between head and weld metal (including HAZ) formed a metallurgical notch that enhanced the diffusion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plating Chemical processing equipment Chemical processing industry Regenerators Valves Cadmium-coated steel Surface treatment related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Background Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws failed. Applications The cap screws...