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Deflection

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001274
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... deflection of the tray handles that had occurred in the failed tray. Full distortion of the handles was obtained experimentally only by dropping a full hot tray on its end onto the floor. The test results indicated that the tray had slipped from the hand of the user. Bending Deflection Food packaging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... that the cracking was caused by lateral deflection of the rails under in-service loads. The web of a rail would normally be loaded in compression but, should lateral movements occur, then it would be subjected to bending stresses and fatigue cracks could break out in regions where excessive tensile...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A graphite-epoxy tapered-box structure, which consisted of two honeycomb skin panels fastened to a spanwise spar with intermediate chordwise ribs, fractured during testing. Hinge-line deflection of the front spar was revealed. Through-thickness cracks in the forward and trailing edges...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047710
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the site at which primary fracture originated. The possible causes of incomplete-fusion include localized magnetic deflection of the electron beam, a momentary arc-out of the electron beam, and eccentricity in the small weld diam. The failure was attributed to fatigue originating at the local unfused...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract Type 302 stainless steel springs used in a printing operation failed by breaking into several pieces after two months in service. The springs were operating over a very small deflection and were regulating the flow of ink, in which they were constantly immersed. Fatigue fractures on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... deflection, greatly increasing the torsional stresses on the spring. To understand the fatigue limits under these test conditions, a bench test was used to establish the fatigue strength of the springs. The bench tests showed that the failed springs had an unacceptable surface texture that reduced the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... broke out all around the circumference at the change of section and progressed inwards. Microscopic examination of the material showed it to be an alloy steel in the hardened and tempered condition, with no abnormal features. It was considered that the bending stresses due to the deflection of the shaft...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... bending fatigue of the gear from the reverse direction near the toe end. The cause of failure was a crossed-over tooth bearing condition that placed loads at the heel end when going forward and at the toe end when going in reverse. The condition was too consistent to be a deflection under load; therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... the deflection of the beam was measured by strain gages within a cavity in the load cell body. Failure had occurred at the forward holddown bolt, within the wider section of the body. Considerable deflection of the body had occurred in service ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Closeup view of a load cell...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047745
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... torch heating, because the oxide layer was about 0.008 mm (0.0003 in.) thick and thus could not have been only the normal passivated film, which is too thin to measure. During examination of this joint, another such assembly broke at the brazed joint when the bellows was subjected to slight deflection...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001268
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... landing of a Navy fighter jet. A detent spring operates by deflecting under a load and returning to equilibrium with the removal of the load. The assembly is composed of nine leafs of various lengths. The missile contacts leaf 9, and the load is transferred from leaf 9 and...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... that a crack had occurred at this side running along half the circumference. At the beginning or at the branches it ran at an angle of about 300 against the circumference. This showed that it was a torsion fracture that was deflected into the direction of circumference by the dimensional effect of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... contained adjacent splices midway across the truss span. It should be noted that adjacent splices are prohibited by code as are splices near the midspan where loads are greatest. The failure of this truss will locally reduced the structural stiffness, allowing more deflection of the roof and more water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the follower roller and sliding bearings, cantilever effect on the follower, Hertzian contact force, deflection at the cam–follower interface, preload of the return spring, flexibility of the camshaft, and the variation of the pressure angle. The equation of motion of the system is given by [ 7...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... propagated mainly across the grains. After electrolytic grain boundary etching in aqueous nitric acid, Fig. 3 , this can be seen particularly clearly. Twin boundaries also fail to deflect the cracks from their original direction, which is determined solely by the stress ( Fig. 3 ). Fig. 2 Cross...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... metal. A similar sling was fabricated in the laboratory, set up in a test fixture, and subjected to three-point loading duplicating that intended for the sling that failed. The yield strength of the test sling (stress causing permanent deflection in the cross member) was 3538 kg (7800 lb), and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0091857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of the assembly places an upward force on the bottoms of the arms (as indicated by the pair of upward facing arrows in Fig. 1 ). This results in the observed inward deflection of the arms (as indicated by the right and left facing arrows). More significantly, this bending force places the inside...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... properties, large deflection, and viscoplastic and dynamic impact analyses are now readily available. Fig. 1 Common types of finite elements used in modeling with examples. (a) Beam spar elements used to construct, for example, a beam element model. (b) Two-dimensional solid-model element with example...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... solid and axisymmetric elements, and the full 3D elements ( Fig. 1 ). Along with the progression in element capability was the advancement toward nonlinear and transient analyses. Contact elements, elastic/plastic properties, large deflection, and viscoplastic and dynamic impact analyses are now readily...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Resulting From Interference Fit 8 With it assumed that interference produces a deflection Δ at the top of the end hook, deflection can be related to a bending moment M acting on the end hook with the use of the virtual work method of Strength of Materials...