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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A 100,000 barrel crude oil storage tank rupture caused extensive property damage in Dec 1980, in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. Failure was attributed to a brittle fracture that originated at a weld between a reinforcing pad and a manway nozzle. Factors that contributed to the brittle...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Moose Jaw, Sask., 1 Dec. 1980—Fire rages following the rupture of a 100 000 bbl (15 900 m 3 ) crude oil storage tank. No injuries were reported, but extensive damage was caused to a four block area in the city's industrial section. Estimated cost of damage and cleanup: $8.5 million More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., misunderstanding of brittle fracture led to the wrong design and construction of an LPG storage tank. The best design specification is to use a correlation between LAST, the Lowest Anticipated Service Temperature, and the DBTT measured by either Charpy tests or DTT. Crude oil Design Fillet welds Standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... emulsions to reduce the water content in oil to acceptable limits for further refining. Heater Treater uses several mechanisms including heat, gravity segregation, chemical additives, and electric current to break down the oil–water emulsions. The treated crude oil is sent to storage tanks, and the free...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... The fuel burned in the turbines was Diesel C (commonly known as Diesel Coke), which is the last fuel distilled from crude oil. It is recommended as a dissolvent agent and boiler fuel but not as turbine gas fuel because of its high degree of oxidation. Furthermore, it behaves as a highly corrosive gas due...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., 2002 . 5. “ Rupture of Enbridge Pipeline and Release of Crude Oil near Cohasset, Minnesota ,” July 4 , 2002 , Pipeline accident report published by National Transportation Safety Board , Washington, D.C. Selected references Selected references • Eiber R.J. and Kiefner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... to detecting the presence of corrosion. This is still a very crude technique and will not necessarily detect corrosion occurring underneath the outer ferrule. Radiographic techniques have been proven able to detect and accurately analyze the extent of corrosion occurring in the hose. An example...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... frequently contain contaminants that can cause serious hot corrosion problems. A wide range of fuels from clean gas to crude oil are typically used, and all of these fuels can contain sulfur, sodium, potassium, vanadium, lead, and molybdenum as contaminants. The airborne pollutants entering with the inlet...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (evaporating capability) 109.7 kg/s; 394,920 kg/h Steam temperature TSH outlet (from 50% MCR up to MCR) 525 °C Steam pressure TSH outlet (from minimum up to MCR) 84 (85) barg (A) Feed water temp. Eco. Inlet (from 50% MCR up to MCR) 235 °C Boiler water pH value 9.5–10.5 Firing system Crude...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... reservoirs during prolonged production or of gas storage caverns over time can threaten production infrastructure designed to handle “sweet” sulfide-free crude oil or gas. Consequently, control of in situ souring has attracted considerable effort ( Ref 47 ). Degradation of Protective Systems...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... a very crude technique and will not necessarily detect corrosion occurring underneath the outer ferrule. Radiographic techniques have been proven able to detect and accurately analyze the extent of corrosion occurring in the hose. An example of a radiograph of a hose with extensive corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... will be described. Characteristics of High-Pressure Long-Distance Pipelines Three general types of pipelines exist: gathering lines, transmission lines, and distribution lines. Gas or crude oil gathering lines exist between a well and a treatment plant or collection point. These are usually relatively small...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., hacksaws, band saws, or soft abrasive cutoff wheels flooded with water-based soluble oil solution to keep metal surfaces cool and corrosion-free. Dry cutting with an air-driven abrasive disk may also be used with care to remove small specimens from large parts if kept cool, along with coating the fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 10 MPa (1450 psi) from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground. Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields and deep ocean thermal vents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., pipelines have proven to be the safest and most efficient ( Ref 1 ). However, the pipeline infrastructure is aging; more than half of all miles of oil and gas pipelines in the United States were installed before 1970 ( Ref 2 ). Like other forms of infrastructure, pipelines require maintenance and integrity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in vessels handling sour (hydrogen-sulfide-containing) light hydrocarbons and in alkylation units where hydrofluoric acid is used as a catalyst. Storage vessels with sour gasoline and propane are highly prone to blistering, but sour crude storage tanks are less prone to blistering, apparently because the oil...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... (hydrogen-sulfide-containing) light hydrocarbons and in alkylation units where hydrofluoric acid is used as a catalyst. Storage vessels with sour gasoline and propane are highly prone to blistering, but sour crude storage tanks are less prone to blistering, apparently because the oil film of the heavier...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... outdoors in a crude oil pumping assembly. The loading condition varied from 0 to 160,000 N (0 to 36,000 lbf) and was loaded approximately 8 times/min continuously for approximately a year before failure of the wire rope. The customer noted that similar failures had occurred previously. Investigation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...—Nondestructive Examination ASME B31.3—Process Piping ASME B31.1—Power Piping API 650—Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 620—Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API 530—Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries Inspection codes: API...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Florida climate and were covered by a heavy layer of rust when the analysts obtained them. The plaintiff's expert had only a crude sketch showing how the 59 pieces related to the original two axle portions. After cleaning off the rust, the analysts were allowed to reprepare the original polished surfaces...