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Critical temperature

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... passage. The excessive gas temperatures were responsible for the expansion and distortion that prevented rotation of the rotor. Actual operating temperatures exceeded those intended for this application. The presence of transformation products in the brake-rotor edge indicated that the lower critical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract A 22 m (72 ft) diameter filled grain storage bin made from a 0.2% carbon steel collapsed at a temperature of −1 to 4 deg C (30 to 40 deg F). Failure analysis indicated that fracture occurred in a two-step process: first downward, by ductile failure of small ligament from a bolt hole...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... fractured repeatedly. The ruptures did not occur exclusively or even preferentially at the loops, but just as frequently at locations between them. The mistake made in this case was annealing the steel at a temperature in the critical region. This was probably done to relieve stresses that originated during...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... were concentrated towards decreasing the Charpy ductile-to-brittle transition temperature to avoid brittle fracture. It was subsequently revealed that the absorbed energy on the upper shelf of the Charpy energy-temperature curve was critical for arresting a moving crack. Both fracture initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for 77,000 h. Rupture occurred along the outer bend radius of the 168 mm diam tube, this being of 1 Cr, 0.5 Mo steel with a wall thickness of 14 mm. The design temperature of this tube was 490 deg C, but there is evidence that it was operating at a temperature much above 500 deg C. Metallographic analysis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... this amount of strain, no grain growth would occur upon heating to the solution-treatment temperature, as was the case with some of the neutral-axis grains. Regions receiving the critical strain or slightly more would experience maximum grain growth upon solution treatment. The portions of the tube at 90...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... made, because calculations of ideal critical diameter and analysis of available hardenability data indicated that the original hardness specification could be met. There was, however, less room for process variation. The parts ended up containing temper carbides, developed heavy decarburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... and order of precipitation. Tests showed that a subsequent removal of this defect by solutioning was impractical because the annealing temperature was too high. To avoid this defect in the future the sole recommendation is to accelerate the cooling rate through the critical region between 1200 to 900 deg C...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... V-notch test data obtained on the duct material. The cracks ran during the shutdown transient when the duct wall temperature dropped, reducing the toughness below the critical value for the existing fatigue cracks. Fast fractures moving at the speed of sound in the material were heard by the system...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... ). This study made extensive use of the British critical flaw document PD 6493 ( 2 ) and yielded critical flaw sizes for vessels in a range of stresses and temperatures from operational (−60°C) to ambient (+25°C). The critical opening displacement (COD) fractured toughness (for the particular 10 mm thick steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the extent of grain boundary phosphorus segregation exhibited a good relationship with ambient temperature Charpy data. The electrochemical polarization kinetic reactivation, EPR, approach, however, proved disappointing in that the overlapping scatter in the minimum current density, Ir, for an embrittled...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
..., because the crack length was smaller than the critical crack length at room temperature. As the weld was associated with poor low-temperature impact properties, lowering the temperature of the component during startup facilitated growth of the crack developed during storage (under the combined influence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
..., the operating stress was raised locally by the sharp-edged groove, and second, the fracture resistance of the cast iron was lowered at this critical point by the existence of a ferritic bright border. To avoid such damage in the future it was recommended to observe one or more of the following precautions: 1...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... out of the pitted areas. Alternatively polishing and etching micro-sections for viewing at high magnification made crack detail more visible. Optical and scanning electron micrographs showed cracking in austenitic cast steel and cast iron due to both internal tensile and critical residual stresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001356
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to cool the ring. Factors which promoted the failure were higher than normal strength levels in the ring material, lower than normal ring operating temperatures, possible moisture in the lubrication oil system, periodic poor performance of the hydrogen dryers, and a ring design which allowed water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and mechanical property testing. This provided critical information and revealed that improper coking and decoking had removed the protective oxide layer (Cr 2 O 3 ) that normally prevents coke deposits from forming on exposed surfaces. Without...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is used for determination of stress states at the critical locations of the die. The materials of die and billet investigated are H13 steel and Al-6063, respectively. Considering temperatures and strain rate as process parameters and bearing length and fillet radius as die features, different simulation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... precipitation• Some cold flow in last stages of failure Contributing factors • Load exceeded the strength of the part• Check for proper alloy and processing by hardness check or destructive testing, chemical analysis• Loading direction may show failure was secondary• Short-term, high-temperature, high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... decarburization that leads to a loosening of the structure through precipitation of methane on the grain boundaries 1 . The critical temperature at which the attack occurs lies between 200 and 300°C, depending upon the hydrogen pressure 2 . Parts of an apparatus that are stressed in this temperature region must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may show failure was secondary • Short-term, high-temperature, high-stress rupture has ductile appearance (see creep) • Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part • Check for proper alloy and processing as well as proper toughness, grain size • Loading direction may show failure was secondary...