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Creep resistance

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0090454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... resistance of the material and accelerated the failure. Chemical analysis Creep resistance Molding resins Residual stresses Shrinkage Solvents Storage vessels High-density polyethylene Creep fracture/stress rupture Brittle fracture A chemical storage vessel failed while in service. The...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001735
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... showed the welds to be inadequate, and to have a strength and creep resistance below those of the base metal. Reformer furnaces Tubine Welded joints HK-40 UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture A sample tube was removed from a reformer furnace for life assessment after 69,000 h of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0060144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... filled with a nickel catalyst. The tubes were centrifugally cast from ASTM A297, grade HK-40 (Fe-25Cr-20Ni-0.40C), heat-resistant alloy. The tube was concluded after metallurgical inspection to have failed from creep rupture (i.e., stress rupture). A project for detecting midwall creep fissuring was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... microstructural change can embrittle steel parts, and reduce strength and creep resistance. Pearlite decomposes by either graphitization or spheroidization. Both mechanisms are temperature-dependent and occur at temperatures in the 427 to 732 °C (800 to 1350 °F) range. Graphitization usually occurs at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in the component. In these cases, most of the life of the component is spent in crack growth. This involves assessment of fracture resistance rather than a strength assessment based on bulk creep rates and time to stress rupture. Therefore, creep life assessment can involve evaluation of both creep...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the component. In these cases, most of the life of the component is spent in crack growth. This involves assessment of fracture resistance rather than a strength assessment based on bulk creep rates and time to stress rupture. Therefore, creep life assessment may involve evaluation of both creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures of 10Cr-Mo9-10 and X 20Cr-Mo-V12-1 superheated pipes during service in steam power generation plants are described. Through micrographic and fractographic analysis, creep and overheating were identified as the cause of failure. The Larson-Miller parameter is computed, as a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... violence. The tube approximately 30 ft. long by 6 in. diam, was constructed of three spun cast sections butt welded together. The material specified for tubes for this service was basically a 25% chromium, 20% nickel, cast stainless steel containing 0.4% carbon to optimize creep resistance. Failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... by intergranular sliding of ferrite/ferrite and ferrite/pearlite, just as it occurs in stage III creep behavior. The behavior is confirmed through the Ashby-Verrall model, according to which the dislocation creep (power-law creep) and diffusion creep (linear-viscous creep) occur simultaneously...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... chromium additions such as ASTM A213 Grade T11 or T22, which are resistant to graphitization damage. Boiler tubes Creep (materials) Graphitization, Heating effects Mechanical properties Microstructural effects Overheating ASTM A209 grade T1 UNS K11522 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Microstructural and EDS analysis yielded evidence of overheating, revealing voids, scale, grain boundary oxidation, decarburization, and grain coarsening on the inner surface of the pipe, which also suggest the initiation of creep. Based on the information gathered during the investigation, the blow pipe was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... that the sulfur and phosphorus contents of the weld metal were higher than specified, the thickness was narrower at the weld, and the mechanical resistance of the weld metal was lower than specified. Cracking initiated at the weld root by coalescence of creep cavities. Propagation and expansion was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... castings Fig. 2 Macroetched turbine blades showing characteristic grain structure for equiaxed (EQ), directionally solidified (DS), and single crystal (SX) castings. Off-axis grain boundaries in DS and SX castings significantly improve creep resistance and overall stress rupture life compared to...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... °C, grain growth would be extremely rapid. Mechanical properties such as yield and tensile strengths and creep resistance would degrade as service time at elevated temperature increases. In addition to grain growth, creep is also a thermally activated process. At high temperature, creep induced...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fatigue, creep, or environmentally-assisted cracking. Corrosion and wear are another form of progressive material alteration or removal that can lead to failure or obsolescence. This article primarily covers the topic of abrasive wear failures, covering the general classification of wear. It also...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Stress Rupture Failures” in this Volume. Most (but not all) creep curves show three distinct stages, as briefly described in the following. Creep strength (i.e., the resistance to creep deformation) of a metal is determined by a variety of factors, including composition, melting and deoxidation practice...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., 2% nital etched 297x images, chemical analysis, and SEM fractographs) supported the conclusion that the superheater tube failed as a result of long-term overheating. Substantial creep damage reduced the strength of the tube to the point that overload failure occurred. No recommendations were made...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001602
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., their distribution and orientation), c) evidence of the transgranular initiation, and d) intergranular creep mechanism propagation. The most probable cause of the bucket damage was the combination of increased stresses due to corrosion-induced thinning of the tip shroud and unfavorable microstructures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... revealed that the cracks initiated at the outer surface by a combined mechanism of creep and intergranular embrittlement. A smaller grain size resulting from cold bending fabrication procedures for the curved parts was responsible for accelerating the embrittlement. It was recommended that hot bending be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Two superheater tubes from a 6.2 MPa (900 psig) boiler failed in service because of creep rupture. One tube was carbon steel and the other was carbon steel welded to ASTM A213 Grade T22 (2.25Cr-1.0Mo) tubing. The failure in the welded tube occurred in the carbon steel section. Portions...