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Creep (materials)

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 7 Comparison of creep curves for base material and longitudinal seam-weld metal at 665 C and 41.4 MPa. More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 2 Creep-recovery response of a viscoelastic material. Source: Ref 5 More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001128
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Creep crack growth and fracture toughness tests were performed using test material machined from a seam welded ASTM A-155-66 class 1 (2.25Cr-1Mo) steel steam pipe that had been in service for 15 years. The fracture morphology was examined using SEM fractography. Dimpled fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... environment. On this basis, it was concluded that creep of the solder alloy was the most probable cause of failure. Creep (materials) Fire protection Soldered joints Solders Solder alloy Creep fracture/stress rupture Background A sprinkler head unit that was installed in a smoking lounge...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... high local stress. The study indicates that standard metallographic procedures can be used to identify failure modes in high temperature petrochemical plants. Creep (materials) Petrochemical plants Reformer tubes Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Thermal fatigue fracture Tubing operating at high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... be used for fabrication of the curved parts. A change of alloy to a low-alloy chromium-molybdenum allay to protect against heat was also suggested. Chemical processing equipment Chemical reactors Creep (materials) Pipe bends Tubing Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Intergranular fracture Creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... with chromium additions such as ASTM A213 Grade T11 or T22, which are resistant to graphitization damage. Boiler tubes Creep (materials) Graphitization, Heating effects Mechanical properties Microstructural effects Overheating ASTM A209 grade T1 UNS K11522 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... it necessary to incorporate a service life when designing components for elevated-temperature service. Creep is one of the most common damage mechanisms of concern at elevated temperatures. Creep, in a general sense, refers to the progressive reduction in the ability of a material to resist stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of creep-related failures, where the mechanical strength of a material becomes limited by creep rather than by its elastic limit. The majority of information provided is applicable to metallic materials, and only general information regarding creep-related failures of polymeric materials is given...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001738
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... showed that the cracking could not be caused by creep. It was found that the cracking was confined to a 4-mm deep coarse-grained zone (ASTM 0-1) at the outer diameter. The cracking appeared to be caused by strain-induced intergranular oxidation. When the cracks reached the fine-grained material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... temperature, replacing the Schedule 40 100 deg bends with Schedule 80 pipe, and solution annealing the pipe after bending. Boiler tubes Brittle fracture Contaminants Creep (materials) Ductility Intergranular fracture Lead (metal), Impurities Mechanical properties SB407 Incoloy 800H UNS N08810...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., the material being AISI 321 stainless steel. The purpose of the present study was to determine optimum repair welding procedures on the premise that the material was basically sound and undamaged by creep. The cracking was the result of thermal fatigue, and such cracks can propagate at elevated temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by the elastic limit for a given alloy. Creep deformation may produce sufficiently large changes in the dimensions of a component to either render it useless for further service or cause fracture. When excessive creep deformation causes the material to reach or exceed some design limit on strain, the term creep...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001669
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... initiation are: (1) operational transients leading to creep-fatigue interaction; or, (2) the expected redistribution of stress from the I.D. to the O.D. surface was interrupted due to differences in the material properties between subsurface weld beads, which were tempered by subsequent passes, and the final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the general aspects of creep, stress relaxation, and yielding for homogeneous polymers. It then presents creep failure mechanisms in polymers. The article discusses extrapolative methods for the prediction of long-term creep failure in polymer materials...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of this alloy would provide more than a 1000-fold improvement in creep strength. Design and Material Requirements A typical catalyst profile screen wire design is shown in Fig. 1 . The Type 304 cold rolled profile wire had a thickness of 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) tapering to 0.8 mm (0.032 in.) at the trailing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Fig. 1 Schematic showing where failure occurred in superheated steam transfer line. Metallographic analysis of the material disclosed an advanced stage of creep damage accumulation in the form of local cracks, microcracks and aligned damage centers which show up as voids following upon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., (σ 0 /η)t, on the nearly purely viscous fluid element, and Fig. 5(d) the resultant strain, D(t)*σ 0 , on the viscoelastic material. This generalized description of constant stress is the basis of typical creep testing, in which the compliance modulus function can be empirically measured by testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... bearing thread. Crack extension was the result of marked creep embrittlement and reverse temper embrittlement (RTE). Selected approaches were examined to assess the effects of RTE on the material toughness of selected studs. It was observed that Auger electron microscopy results which indicated the extent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to an EQ casting. (Photo courtesy Alcoa Howmet, Whitehall, Michigan.) [ 1 ] Creep Curve and Stress Rupture As mentioned, one of the most important variables for materials operating at high temperatures is their creep behavior. Creep describes the tendency of a material to accumulate plastic...