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Crazing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crazing and fracture in polymeric materials, with a review of the behavior of the elastic modulus as a function of temperature or time parameters, emphasizing the importance of the viscoelastic nature of their deformation and fracture. The discussion covers the behavior of polymers under stress, provides...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 Crazing fibrils in linear polyethylene (density, 0.964 g/cm 3 ) More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 10 Optical images of crazing in bend specimens using phthalate plasticizer on the top surface of the specimen; (a) crazes in PMMA polymer, (b) crazes in PET polymer More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 12 Crazing fibrils in HDPE (density, 0.964 g/cm 3 ). (a) Presence of fibrils bridging the craze, (b) Presence of discrete crazes at the tip of the main craze More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 16 Comparison of crazing stress and shear-yielding stress on σ 1 and σ 2 biaxial section. Adapted from Ref 32 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 19 SEM images of Ultem 1000 showing patch pattern indicating crazing. (a) Rectangular patches indicative of crazing. Magnification 250x. (b) Stretching at the edges of the patches. Magnification 1.50k× More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 3 Critical strain for the crazing or cracking of swollen polysulfone as a function of the glass transition temperature, T g , of solvent-equilibrated films. Source: Ref 33 More
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Published: 15 May 2022
Fig. 4 Crazing fibrils in linear polyethylene More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091727
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...-corrosion resulting from contamination during misprocessing of the vessels. However, another vessel underwent a more severe testing procedure and failed catastrophically. Further investigation supported the conclusion that the failure cause was SCC of titanium in methanol. Attack is promoted by crazing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Metal-framed polycarbonate (PC) ophthalmic lenses shattered from acetone solvent-induced cracking. The lenses exhibited primary and secondary cracks with solvent swelling and crazing. A laboratory accident splashed acetone onto the lenses. The metal frames gripped approximately two...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... that contain oriented polymeric material. The resulting region consisting of voids and fibrils is known as a craze ( Fig. 4 ). The long-chain nature of polymers is responsible for crazing. Without the long chains, it would not be possible to form the fibrils that span the craze and prevent the conversion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... In contrast, cavitation processes in polymers can dominate the plastic deformation. These voids do not coalesce into a crack, but instead become stabilized by fibrils containing oriented polymeric material. The resulting region consisting of voids and fibrils is known as a craze ( Fig. 4 ). The long-chain...
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Published: 15 May 2022
crack growth. Most notably there is a large craze fibril that is still intact near the crack tip. (b) The leading craze fibril has now ruptured. Greater detail of the ruptured craze fibrils can be observed at this magnification. (c) Largest extent of crack growth in the specimen. The image captures More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...) physical effects. Chemical attack occurs when chemical reactions result from the interaction between the environment and polymer molecules. This type of interaction may involve chain scission, the degradation of a polymer main chain, which is an irreversible effect. Crazing and microcracking, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... how the applied stress, strain and/or strain rate, and temperature influence the rate of creep and stress relaxation and produce yielding. In addition, the effects of thermal and mechanical history must be considered. Polymers deform by two primary mechanisms: shear flow and crazing ( Ref 1...
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 33 Crazed pattern of thermal fatigue cracking on the outer surface of a stainless steel tube. See also Fig. 37 . Approximately 4× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 12 A thinned section of fatigue-cracked polypropylene specimen. Crazes are visible surrounding and preceding the crack. 8× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 13 Fatigue-crack initiation in polystyrene from a V-notch. Note crazes surrounding and preceding the crack. 37× More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 16 Crack formation from a craze More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 19 Craze formation in a polycarbonate polymer in tension under alcohol. Source: Ref 37 More