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Crater corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... surface oxide layer (Cr2O3), triggering a succession of reactions that led to pitting and the formation of craters. Heat exchangers Metal dusting Radiant pipes HK-40 UNS J94204 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Metal dusting is a corrosion-like degradation mechanism by means of a...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... temperature, and electroplated with cadmium for protection against corrosion. Each fracture showed seven or eight kidney-shaped cracks. At the origins of these cracks on the concave inner surface of the springs, crater-like depressions and beads of melted and resolidified material were found. Fracture of the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0091345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
.... Recommendations included replaced the material with type 304L stainless steel. Crater corrosion Heat exchanger tubes Nitric acid Welded joints 347 UNS S34700 Crevice corrosion Beveled weld-joint V-sections were fabricated to connect inlet and outlet sections of tubes in a type 347 stainless steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... purge, excess penetration, sugaring, excess heat, lack of fusion, and pull-off craters were all observed. Oxidation and crevices associated with these defects provide ready sites for corrosion to initiate. However, most welds in the system were of acceptable quality, and leaks also developed at some of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article addresses the forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. It describes the mechanisms of corrosive attack for specific forms of corrosion such as galvanic corrosion, uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered are...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cleaned to remove any oxide. Numerous tiny pits, or craters, are present and high magnification shows that they were formed by ductile tearing. An analysis of the corrosion product (orange-colored film) using EDS revealed that sulfur was present in large quantities. Fig. 9 SEM photomicrograph of pit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determine the cause and suggest corrective action. The causes of failures include tube rupture, corrosion or scaling, fatigue, erosion, and stress-corrosion cracking. The article also describes the procedures for conducting a failure analysis. boilers corrosion embrittlement erosion failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... various lengths of the indications. Fig. 4 Area of additional spark tracks. The melted material has resulted in a recessed geometry, with buildup along the sides of the tracks. 31×. Fig. 5 Overlapping puddling and resultant craters. 46×. Multiple bombardments of sparks resulted in...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a crater. Whereas, cavitation sign usually appear as cluster of pits centered altogether ( Fig. 1 ) [ 7 , 8 ]. Fig. 1 A comparison between a typical cavitation pit and erosion assisted degradation [ 7 ] The selection of materials that are both cost-effective and technically suitable...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Rotational creep because of loose fit Electrical Pitting Small craters uniformly distributed over ball paths Continuous passage of electric current Small craters randomly oriented or in bandlike order along ball paths Intermittent passage of electric current Fluting Ridges with burnt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects of load frequency and temperature, material condition, and manufacturing practices on fatigue strength. It provides information on subsurface discontinuities, including gas porosity, inclusions, and internal bursts as well as on corrosion fatigue testing to measure rates of fatigue-crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... vapourisation of metal and the production of craters and pits. This spark-erosion effect frequently gives rise to rapid vibrations which assist in producing the characteristic effect. In some instances, it is possible, under high magnification, to observe the burnt or fused metal associated with individual...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... liquid impingement erosion. (a) Solid surface showing initial impact of a drop of liquid that produces circumferential cracks in the area of impact or produces shallow craters in very ductile materials. (b) High-velocity radial flow of liquid away from the impact area is arrested by a nearby surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... liquid impingement erosion. (a) Solid surface showing initial impact of a drop of liquid that produces circumferential cracks in the area of impact or produces shallow craters in very ductile materials. (b) High-velocity radial flow of liquid away from the impact area is arrested by a nearby surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... fretting-type damage are false Brinelling , which is applied particularly to bearings in which the craters caused by the vibration of the ball against the race are circular and resemble Brinell impressions, and fitting rust , in which gages or shims are clamped together and experience vibration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracking in heat-affected zone (HAZ) Sensitized HAZ Residual-stress cracking Slag inclusions Cratering of fusion zone at endpoint Filler metal contour out of specification Hot cracking Cracking at low exposure temperatures Hydrogen embrittlement due to moisture contamination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... results in an acceleration of material-removal rate. The worn surface becomes rougher with a large number of small pits and deep craters ( Fig. 5 ). The erosion rate can increase or remain constant depending on material type and cavitation conditions. Neither the craters nor the pits are associated in any...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... flange such that the crack plane was perpendicular to the tangential direction of the turntable rail. There was no visible evidence of plastic deformation associated with the crack. The contact surfaces of the rail appeared worn and contained many shallow wear craters. Slight corrosion of the contact...