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Cracking, environmental effects

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the root cause of an overload failure. It also presents examples of thermally and environmentally induced embrittlement effects that can alter the overload fracture behavior of metals. atomic structure brittle cracking crack propagation crystalline structure ductile cracking ductility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is not a unique fracture process: it is just a preferential crack path where brittle, ductile, or fatigue cracking may occur at the grain boundaries by various time-temperature factors, such as species transport or diffusion or thermal activation. Moreover, synergistic effects of environmental conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... chemicals can induce environmental stress cracking (ESC), an effect in which brittle fracture of a polymer will occur at a level of stress well below that required to cause failure in the absence of the ESC reagent. Finally, there are some chemicals that cause actual degradation of the polymer, breaking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube failures, molten salts for energy storage, and degradation and failures in gas turbines. The article describes the effects of environment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...; and to not apply excessive stress on ophthalmic lenses in the form of working or residual stresses. Acetone environment Cracking, environmental effects Crazing Mechanical properties Plastic Safety glasses Swelling Polycarbonate Environmental cracking (plastics) Background Application Metal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the weakening of grain boundaries by various time-temperature factors, such as species transport or diffusion or thermal activation. Moreover, synergistic effects of environmental conditions and sustained stress may be involved in IG cracking. The conditions under which a slowly growing crack may follow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Nonmetals The root-cause failure analysis of polymers is becoming more common. A significant portion of polymer failures are environmentally influenced. Environmental factors can have significant detrimental effects on polymer components with respect to strength and appearance. Environmental effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... a crystallization of the PET resin. The grease present within the housing assembly, analyzed using micro-FTIR, was composed of a hydrocarbon-based oil, a phthalate-based oil, lithium stearate, and an amide-based additive. The conclusion was that the appliance housings failed through environmental stress cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0090639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... residual-stress measurements were then performed on heat treated tiedown sockets to verify the effectiveness of the localized heat treatment process applied. Cracks Tiedown sockets Welded joints X-ray diffraction Welded steel Joining-related failures Cracks initiating from the tip...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed that the mode of fracture was by intergranular decohesion which indicates an environmental influence in the fracture mechanism. This fracture mode occurred across the entire cross-section of the stud in the slow crack growth region...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of soluble salts containing certain specific anions can inhibit the crack-producing effect of a given environment on a given alloy. Certain aspects of the metallurgical structure of an alloy (such as grain size, crystal structure, and number of phases) influence the susceptibility of the alloy to SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... nickel, 600 Hydrogen gas charged at 723 K, tested at room temperature K500 Cathodic charge, seawater Fig. 3 Potential ranges of environmentally assisted cracking by (I) hydrogen embrittlement, (II) cracking of unstable passive film, and (III) cracking initiated at pits near the pitting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-induced embrittlement. This phenomenon shares many of these characteristics with other modes of environmentally induced cracking, such as hydrogen embrittlement and stress-corrosion cracking. The discussion covers the occurrence, failure analysis, and service failures of the embrittlement. The article...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
..., as well as the role and effect of environmental conditions that caused damage to occur. 5 These results are of particular value in preventing damage from occurring and lowering the number of parts that get damaged. 6 Experimental Analysis Conclusion References References 1. Decker...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... amounts of hydrogen can have a deleterious effect, particularly for high-strength steels with tensile strengths of 1240 MPa (180 ksi) or more. A few parts per million of hydrogen dissolved in steel can cause hairline cracking and loss of tensile ductility. Even when the quantity of gas in solution is too...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmentally induced cracking, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. It begins by presenting terminology and background of SCC. Then, the general characteristics of SCC and the development of conditions for SCC as well as the stages of SCC are covered. The article provides a brief overview...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Fig. 12 Simplified fuselage pressurization spectrum( example 2 ) Fig. 11 S-N curve for notched ( K t = 2.0) 4130 alloy steel sheet. Stresses are based on net section. Source: Ref 31 Fig. 5 Effect of thickness on fracture toughness Fig. 6 Diametrical crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001672
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... ( 1974 ). 5. Gangloff R. P. , “Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation,” Metals Handbook , 9th Edition , Vol. 8 , American Society for Metals , Metals Park, OH , pp. 403 – 410 ( 1985 ). 6. Ewalds H. L. and Wanhill R.J.H. , Fracture Mechanics , Edward...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., material, and environmental variables. In a given material, in addition to the environmental effects, crack-growth rates can vary widely with variations in loading parameters, such as stress state, stress-intensity range, and stress wave shape and frequency. For example, crack size and geometry may alter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Sucker-rod pumps are operating in very aggressive environments in oil well production. The combined effect of a corrosive environment and significant mechanical loads contribute to frequent cases of failure of the rod string during operation. Standards and recommendations have...