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Crack propagation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001576
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract Macrofractographs of the fracture surface from a multibladed fan showed that cracks started at the corner where bending stress was concentrated and propagated through the blade by fatigue. Peak stress at the monitoring position was less than 10 MPa. To simulate crack growth, the rotor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... during their lifetime. This article focuses on fractography of fatigue. It provides an abbreviated summary of fatigue processes and mechanisms: fatigue crack initiation, fatigue crack propagation, and final fracture,. Characteristic fatigue fracture features that can be discerned visually or under low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... general aspects of fracture modes and mechanisms. The article briefly reviews some mechanistic aspects of ductile and brittle crack propagation, including discussion on mixed-mode cracking. Factors associated with overload failures are discussed, and, where appropriate, preventive steps for reducing the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... presence of a tensile stress ( Fig. 1 ). The SCC failures are insidious and potentially dangerous because the stresses at which SCC can occur are relatively low (often less than the yield strength or fatigue strength of a metal), and cracks initiate and propagate in conditions when none would be expected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on characterizing the fracture-surface appearance at the microscale and contains some discussion on both crack nucleation and propagation mechanisms that cause the fracture appearance. It begins with a discussion on microscale models and mechanisms for deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... and Furubayashi E.-I. , Crack Propagation of High Strength Steels in a Gaseous Hydrogen Atmosphere , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 14 , 1983 , p 717 – 726 10.1007/BF02643788 25. Johnson W.C. and Stein D.F. , A Study of Grain Boundary Segregants in Thermally Embrittled Maraging...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract After a quick-release fitting of an ejection seat broke, an investigation was performed to determine the manner and cause of crack propagation. Most fractography-based investigations aim to characterize only qualitative characteristics, such as the fracture orientation and origin...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the partially melted region (liquid at grain boundaries) in the HAZ and the likelihood of cracks occurring [ 3 ]. Fig. 5 Intergranular HAZ Liquation Microcrack Initiation Site for Through-Wall Crack Propagation. Fig. 6 Grain Morphology of Fusion Zone Indicating Teardrop-Shaped Weld...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... and/or corrosion fatigue. It was concluded that crack propagation of the fracture in the wing panel occurred by a combination of corrosion and high-cycle fatigue in the end fastener holes. It was recommended that future panels be manufactured of 2024 aluminum. Corrosion fatigue Crack initiation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c0048043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... corrosive medium (presumably seawater) had entered the crack from the inner surface of the fitting and, coupled with the hairline crack, developed crevice corrosion. High residual stresses in the swaged metal caused the crack to propagate toward the outer surface, followed closely by corrosion. The last 0.3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... deposits were of type 347 stainless steel, and the flanges were type 304 stainless steel. Metallographic examination of the failed studs revealed that the HAZs contained regions of martensite and that intergranular cracks, which initiated at the stud surfaces during welding, propagated to complete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the compression-loading skin panel were revealed by nondestructive visual examination. A band of de-lamination between the areas of through-thickness skin fracture at the front and rear spar was revealed. A map of the local directions of crack propagation over the fracture surface was generated by...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract The genesis of failure of 6.1 mm thick electric resistance welded API 5L X-46 pipes during pretesting at a pressure equivalent to 90% of specified minimum yield strength was investigated. Cracks were found to initiate on the outer surface of the pipes in the fusion zone and propagate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001566
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and the cracks had penetrated through the wall thickness in several areas. The fracture surfaces had distinct beach markings delineating the crack front, representative of crack propagation stages. The cracks were transgranular and, unlike classical corrosion-fatigue cracks, exhibited branching...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... direction. Since the EB weld is a shrink fit, the surface is in compression, thereby eliminating crack propagation. In addition, shot peening has been employed to produce a compressive material surface since fatigue usually originates at the surface. Pitting was observed down the throat of the venturi. This...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract A short fracture section of a forged and normalized Ck 35 (DIN 17200) steel slide showed three distinct zones: a dark colored crystalline area, an incipient crack propagating into a far advanced, rubbed fracture surface, and a fine crystalline final break. Metallographic examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A crumpled piece of sheet metal had two cracks in a T-junction shape. The relative locations of shear lips in the cracks allowed deduction of which crack happened first, and which direction the cracks propagated. Cracking (fracturing) Sheet metal Sheet metal Ductile fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... marks that indicated crack propagation from multiple origins at the inner surface of the weld edge. Fatigue cracking was initiated at stress concentrations created by the notches at the inner surfaces between the support arm and the fairing, enhanced by poor fit-up in preparation for welding...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... steel. Where the cracks had not eroded away, it was clear they ran transcrystalline, indicative of stress-corrosion cracking. Because the cracks propagated from the outer surface of the vessel, they were not caused by the derusting agent but by the external atmosphere in conjunction with welding...