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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... approximately 45 months. Visual examination of the vanes and the area surrounding the mainshaft-bearing housing revealed a dark corrosion product that was soft, porous, and of low mechanical strength. There were areas with severe erosion. Macrographs of sections through the pump shell and a vane showed darker...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
...Abstract Abstract A large portion of the four-hole Lane plate disintegrated and consisted mainly of corrosion products after remaining in the body for 26 years. Transformation structures and carbides were exhibited by the plate which was made from chromium steel. Minimal corrosion was exhibited...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract Plate perforation occurred in the cylindrical section and walls of the inlet foot (2.38 mm thick Incoloy 825 plate welded using INCO welding rod 135) of an inert gas fire prevention system in an oil tanker. Cross-sectional microprobe analysis showed the corrosion product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract In a copper hot water system, a bent pipe was soldered into a straight pipe with twice the diameter. The neighborhood of the soldered joint was covered with corrosion product predominantly blue-green in color, presumably carbonates. When these corrosion products were scratched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... of corrosion product from each pipe section were analyzed for carbon, sulfur, and iron and were found to consist mainly of iron sulfide mixed with soot and rust. The damage resulted from a high content of hydrogen sulfide in the gas (6% CO2, 20% CO, 8 to 12% H2, 0.5 to 1.5% CH4, remainder N2). To process...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract The phenomenon of on-load corrosion is directly associated with the production of magnetite on the water-side surface of boiler tubes. On-load corrosion may first be manifested by the sudden, violent rupture of a boiler tube, such failures being found to occur predominantly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... species, presumably in an oxide form. The inside surface had the appearance of typical corrosion products. Hardness measurements indicated that the 4340 steel was heat treated to a strength of approximately 862 MPa (125 ksi). It was concluded that the oxide detected on the ballast elbow was iron oxide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0006440
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... electron microscopy. The corrosion product contained molybdenum and copper with a trace of gold. The base material was analyzed as molybdenum with negligible alloying additions. The primary mode of corrosion attack on the base material appeared to be intergranular, although uniform corrosion was evident...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. The presence of a tensile stress, intergranular cracks, and a corrosion product suggested the tube failures resulted from stress-corrosion cracking. The main corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a preferential attack of the gold. To investigate the problem, a matrix of test units was produced and analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy, EDX analysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the extent of the corrosion and identify the corrosion products. The results indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., passed at 1150 psig. The sour gas was heated to 600 deg F by burners playing on the outside of the tube burning “sweet” gas plus air. The inner and outer surfaces of all samples showed evidence of corrosive attack. Electron probe microanalysis showed the corrosion products contained sulfur with iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for cause of failure. First section showed strong pit or trench-like attack in the welding seam on the inner surface. A bluish-black corrosion product adhered to the pits. The second section showed small blisters at the welding seam. The metallographic examination of the first section showed welding seam...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... both combustion products from the cartridges and corrosion products from the chamber, were analyzed using elemental analysis and x-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical polarization techniques were also utilized to estimate corrosion rates. Aerospace engines Aircraft components Breech...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was the subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. Corrosion products primarily contained copper oxide, as would be expected from a copper tubing. The product also exhibited the presence of a significant amount of iron oxides. Metallographic cross sectioning of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Three separate corrosion mechanisms were involved in the failure of an AISI type 304 stainless steel pipe elbow. The major cracks, including the one that penetrated the wall, tend to be wide-mouthed, tapering to a blunt tip, with corrosion products filling much of the crack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... mm (0.005 in.) into the tubing. Experiments indicated that the corrosion products were inactive. It was recommended that another marking process be used that does not involve corrosive materials. The prevention of electrolyte from being trapped between the tubing and ferrules by using a MIL-S-8802...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., there was an absence of significant amounts of corrosion product and all of the pits were filled with corrosion-preventative primer. This indicated that the pitting occurred during spar manufacture, prior to the application of the primer The pitting resulted from multiple nickel plating and defective plating removal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... high hardness levels (210 mg/l), high levels of sulfate ions (55 mg/l), a pH of 7.6 and a sulfate-to-chloride ratio of 3:1. Analysis of corrosion product removed from the ID surfaces of the pipe section revealed that an environment rich in carbonates existed inside the pipe, a result of the hard water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... and inner surfaces of the pipe. Visual observations on the inner diametral surfaces revealed that the pipes were, in almost all cases, filled with corrosion products. A significant amount of base metal loss was documented in all of the samples. The cause of the observed corrosion was determined to be a lack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., and corrosion products in these regions were particularly rich in S, and also contained Al, Si, O, and Cl. The grain boundaries contained Cr-rich particles which were probably Cr23-C6 type carbides. In the matrix, corrosion occurred between the Widmanstatten plates. Particles were found between these plates...