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Corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Corrosion is the electrochemical reaction of a material and its environment. This article addresses those forms of corrosion that contribute directly to the failure of metal parts or that render them susceptible to failure by some other mechanism. Various forms of corrosion covered are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract High-temperature corrosion can occur in numerous environments and is affected by various parameters such as temperature, alloy and protective coating compositions, stress, time, and gas composition. This article discusses the primary mechanisms of high-temperature corrosion, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the mechanisms of microbiologically influenced corrosion as a basis for discussion on the diagnosis, management, and prevention of biological corrosion failures in piping, tanks, heat exchangers, and cooling towers. It begins with an overview of the scope of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material, which are discussed in the following sections along with examples. The tools available for failure analysis are then covered. Further, the article describes the categories of mode of failure: distortion or undesired deformation, fracture, corrosion, and wear. It provides information on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fretting is a wear phenomenon that occurs between two mating surfaces; initially, it is adhesive in nature, and vibration or small-amplitude oscillation is an essential causative factor. Fretting generates wear debris, which oxidizes, leading to a corrosion-like morphology. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... industries. This article describes the processes involved in erosion of ductile materials, brittle materials, and elastomers. Some examples of erosive wear failures are given on abrasive erosion, liquid impingement erosion, cavitation, and erosion-corrosion. In addition, the article provides information on...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Some of the admiralty brass tubes were failing in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger cooled air by passing river water through the inside of the tubes. The wall thickness of all tubes ranged between 1.19 to 1.27 mm (0.047 to 0.050 in.). General intergranular corrosion occurred at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... used in the valve. Manganese sulfide stringers in the valve were exposed at end-grain surfaces in contact with the beverage. The stringers, which were anodic to the surrounding metal, were subject to corrosion, producing a hydrogen sulfide concentration in the immediately adjacent liquid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... were made. Intergranular corrosion Nozzles Nuclear reactor components Inconel 600 UNS N06600 Stress-corrosion cracking Intergranular fracture Cracking occurred in an ASME SB166 Inconel 600 safe-end forging on a nuclear reactor coolant water recirculation nozzle while it was in service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... ammonia (prohibitively expensive in cost and time) or using an alternate material (such as a 70Cu-30Ni alloy or a more expensive titanium alloy) that is resistant to ammonia corrosion as well as to chlorides and sulfur species. Air cooling Ammonia Hydroelectric generators Hydroelectric power...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... corrosion. The thinned tubes were reinforced by pad welding. Type 304 stainless steel shields were welded to the stainless steel portions of the top reheater tubes and were held in place about the chromium-molybdenum steel portions of the tubes by steel bands. Coal dust Heat exchanger tubes Thinning...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... by crevice corrosion. The tubing in the cooler was replaced, and cooling-water supply was changed from river to city water, which contained no dirt to deposit on the tube surfaces. An alternate solution of installing replacement tubes in the vertical position to make deposition of solids from river...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Failures occurred in admiralty brass condenser tubes in a nuclear plant cooled by freshwater. About 2500 tubes had to be replaced over a span of six years. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, water chemistry (for both intake and outfall), and corrosion products in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Large quantities of aluminum-clad spent nuclear materials have been in interim storage in the fuel storage basins at The Savannah River Site while awaiting processing since 1989. This extended storage as a result of a moratorium on processing resulted in corrosion of the aluminum clad...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract The phenomenon of on-load corrosion is directly associated with the production of magnetite on the water-side surface of boiler tubes. On-load corrosion may first be manifested by the sudden, violent rupture of a boiler tube, such failures being found to occur predominantly on the fire...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... subject of a failure investigation to determine the cause and location of the leaks. Corrosion products primarily contained copper oxide, as would be expected from a copper tubing. The product also exhibited the presence of a significant amount of iron oxides. Metallographic cross sectioning of the tubes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0047611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... tubes expanded and welded into two type 304L stainless steel tube sheets. The tubes failed by crevice corrosion. The failed tubes were defective as-received, and the establishment of concentration cells within the longitudinal cracks in the seam welds led to ultimate corrosive penetration of the wall...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Weld-decay and stress-corrosion cracking developed in several similar all-welded vessels fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. During a periodic examination cracks were revealed at the external surface of one of the vessels. External patch welds had been applied at these and...